Marcel Pauker (rendered in Russian as ?????? ?????? - Martsel Pauker; December 6, 1896, Bucharest – August 16, 1938, Butovo, near Moscow) was a Romanian communist militant and husband of the future Romanian Communist leader Ana Pauker.
During his life, Pauker took a series of pseudonyms, the ones used most being: Burghezul, Herman Gugenheim, Paul Lampart, Luximin, Puiu, Priu, Semionovici Marin, Stepan, and Paul Weiss.
Born to a secular Jewish family, Marcel Pauker was a polyglot, and noted speaker of Esperanto. He briefly studied engineering in Zürich, before enlisting as an artillery cadet and becoming a Second Lieutenant in 1916 (during World War I). Between 1919 and 1921, he lived in Switzerland for a second time, receiving his diploma in engineering.
In December 1921, Pauker was designated a member of the Provisional Committee of the Romanian Communist Party; in 1922, his position became that of member of the Central Committee and the Politburo, being sent as delegate to the Balkan Communist Federation Conferences in Sofia (June 1922) and Berlin (1923). His activities brought to the attention of the Romanian authorities: he was arrested and sentenced first to ten years imprisonment, and then to labour for life. Nevertheless, he managed to escape and flee to the Soviet Union in 1925, returning to Romania in 1929. Immediately, he was escorted back to prison, only to be released under the terms of an amnesty. He was yet again arrested, in Petro?ani after his activities as an instigator during the Jiu Valley miners' strike of August 1929.
Marcel Pauker got involved in a political fight with Vitali Holostenco, reflecting the struggle between the Bucharest section and that of the Ukrainian SSR that had taken hold of the Party's wing inside the Soviet Union around the proceedings of the 4th Congress in Kharkiv. Again in the Soviet Union, Pauker was reprimanded by the Comintern. Forbidden from contributing to political activities, he was sent to assist as an engineer in the industrial expansion of Magnitogorsk (in western Siberia), a job he undertook between 1930 and 1932. At the same time, Joseph Stalin, whose priority at the time was showing the facade of "unity" within his subject Parties, had Holostenco removed from his position.
In 1935 Pauker was appointed a member of the Secretariat of the Romanian Communist Party. He spent time in Prague until 1937, when he returned to the Soviet Union. He fell victim to the Great Purge: arrested by the NKVD on March 21, 1937 and held in the infamous Taganka Prison, Marcel Pauker was first interrogated over a year later, being presented with the charge of espionage in favor of Romania. Records show that he finally admitted to the charge (most likely after being subjected to torture). Consequently, he was put on trial, sentenced to death and executed by shooting.
Marcel Pauker was rehabilitated by Soviet authorities in 1957 (as part of the De-Stalinization process under Nikita Khrushchev). Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej's rejection of newer Soviet policies prevented this and other such cases from being mirrored in Communist Romania. While Gheorghiu-Dej was exercising a looser control of the society, he was not ready to question most of the Stalinist measures, as these had served to enforce his own rule during the previous decade.
The case was reconsidered under Nicolae Ceau?escu's further distancing measures. Pauker's name was cleared, but mention of his activities and details of his life were kept secret.
Largely thanks to circumstances, Ana Pauker was able to survive her husband's downfall, and she even reached the peak of her political career in the following years.
They had three children together:
• Tanio (1921-1922)
• Vlad (born 1926)
• Tatiana (born 1928-2011)
Vlad and Tatiana moved to France.
In 1931 Marcel also fathered a son named Yakov, from his relationship with fellow militant Roza Elbert.
He also had lengthy affairs with Elena Filipovici and Vanda Nicolski.
• Vladimir Tism?neanu, Fantoma lui Gheorghiu-Dej, Editura Univers, 1995. ISBN 973-34-0324-5
• Dosarele Istoriei, 10/1998
• (Romanian) Lavinia Tudoran, "Lichida?i de Stalin", Jurnalul Na?ional, March 8, 2004
Ana Pauker (born Hannah Rabinsohn; February 13, 1893 – June 14, 1960) was a Romanian communist leader and served as the country's foreign minister in the late 1940s and early 1950s. She was the unofficial leader of the Romanian Communist Party after World War II.
Early life and political career
Pauker was born into a poor, religious Orthodox Jewish family in Cod?e?ti, Vaslui County (the region of Moldavia). Her parents, Sarah and Hersh Kaufman Rabinsohn, had 4 surviving children; an additional two died in infancy. As a young woman, she became a teacher in a Jewish elementary school in Bucharest. While her younger brother was a Zionist and remained religious, she opted for Socialism, joining the Romanian Social Democratic Party in 1915 and then its successor, the Socialist Party of Romania, in 1916. She was active in the pro-Bolshevik faction of the group, the one that took control after the Party's Congress of May 8–12, 1921 and joined the Comintern under the name of Socialist-Communist Party (future Communist Party of Romania). She and her husband, Marcel Pauker, became leading members. They were both arrested in 1923 and 1924 for their political activities and went into exile in Berlin, Paris, and Vienna in 1926 and 1927. In 1928, Ana Pauker moved to Moscow to enter the Comintern's International Lenin School, which trained the top functionaries of the Communist movement. There, she became closely associated with Dmitry Manuilsky, the Kremlin's foremost representative at the Comintern in the 1930s. 
Communist leadership position
Ana Pauker went to France where she became an instructor for the Comintern and was also involved in the Communist movement elsewhere in the Balkans. She returned to Romania and was arrested in 1935, was put on trial together with other leading Communists such as Alexandru Moghioro? and Alexandru Dr?ghici, and was sentenced to ten years in prison. In May 1941, the Romanian government sent her into exile to the Soviet Union in exchange for Ion Codreanu, a former member of Sfatul ??rii (parliament of Bessarabia that voted for Union with Romania on 27 March 1918), who was detained by the Soviets after the occupation of Bessarabia in 1940. In the meantime, her husband fell victim to the Soviet Great Purge, in 1938. Rumors abounded that she herself had denounced him as a Trotskyist traitor; Comintern archival documents reveal, however, that she repeatedly refused to do so.
In Moscow, she became the leader of the Romanian Communist exiles who would later become known as the "Muscovite faction". She returned to Romania in 1944 when the Red Army entered the country, becoming a member of the post-war government, which came to be dominated by the Communists. In November 1947, the non-Communist Foreign Minister Gheorghe T?t?rescu was ousted and replaced by Pauker, making her the first woman in the modern world to hold such a post.
But it was her position in the Communist Party leadership that was paramount. As a member of the 4-person Secretariat of the Central Committee and formally second in the leadership, Pauker was widely believed to be the actual leader of the Romanian Communists in all but name during the immediate post-war period. In 1948 Time magazine featured her portrait on its cover and described her as "the most powerful woman alive". Infamous as the "Iron Lady" of Romanian Communist politics, she was universally seen as unreservedly Stalinist and as Moscow's primary agent in Romania.
Unquestionably, Ana Pauker played a pivotal role in the brutal imposition of Communism on Romania. At the same time, she emerged as a force for moderation within the Romanian Communist leadership during the early postwar period. Pauker was certainly complicit in the extensive purges and arrests in 1945 of tens of thousands of Romanians who were linked to the Antonescu regime. But by August 1945 Pauker and Interior Minister Teohari Georgescu released all but two to three thousand of those arrested, and they offered amnesty to any member of the fascist Iron Guard who had not committed serious crimes and who would turn in his weapons.  In late 1944 or early 1945, she pushed for creating a more broad-based coalition with the National Peasants' Party and the National Liberal Party, but was overruled by Joseph Stalin; hence, the Communist-led government created in March 1945 comprised a more restrictive coalition with a faction of the National Liberals led by Gheorghe T?t?rescu.
During this same period, Pauker also pursued what she later described as "a type of Social Democratic policy" of mass recruitment of as many as 500,000 new Communist Party members without verification, including former members of the Iron Guard.  This policy would later be the subject of an attack on Pauker during her purge, and it was quickly overturned. Mass arrests would return with a vengeance beginning in 1947 (including the members of the National Peasants' Party and the National Liberal Party, as well as the amnestied Iron Guardists), and many of those who entered the party during Pauker's mass recruitment campaign would be purged between 1948 and 1950.
These contradictions would intensify as the regime became more Stalinist under Cold War pressures from 1947 on. Ana Pauker was a steeled and tested Stalinist who was "fanatically loyal to Stalin and the Soviet Union," who once admitted that "[i]f a Soviet official told me something, it was the gospel for me... If they had told me that the USSR needed it, I would have done it... [I]f they had told me to throw myself into the fire, I would have done it." Nevertheless, Pauker paradoxically promoted a number of policies counter to those of the Kremlin during the Cominform period of "high Stalinism," when the Soviet Union imposed a single, hegemonic line on all its satellites. In 1948 she opposed the verification and purge of the large numbers who had entered the Communist Party during her mass recruitment campaign, even though the Cominform had ordered such a verification in every Bloc country.  In 1949 she opposed the construction of the Danube-Black Sea Canal, even though, according to her own testimony, Stalin had personally proposed the project. In 1949-52 she opposed the purging of the Romanian veterans of the Spanish Civil War and French Resistance as part of Moscow's bloc-wide campaign against Josip Broz Tito, or, at the very least, took no part in their repression, as they were not purged en masse in Romania until a few months after Pauker's downfall. And she was reported by colleagues and associates to have resisted Stalin's plans to have Justice Minister Lucre?iu P?tr??canu put on trial, and was accused by the Securitate's chief Soviet adviser of having "sabotaged and postponed investigations" in the P?tr??canu case. (This remains a subject of debate among historians, for there is a dearth of evidence in the Romanian archives on Pauker's position on P?tr??canu because all transcripts of Politburo discussions on the P?tr??canu inquiry were summarily destroyed on the orders of General Secretary Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej.)
In addition, Pauker supported, and helped facilitate, the emigration of roughly 100,000 Jews to Israel from the spring of 1950 to the spring of 1952, when all other Soviet satellites had shut their gates to Jewish emigration in line with Stalin's escalating "anti-Zionist" campaign. And she firmly opposed forced collectivization that was carried out on Moscow's orders in the summer of 1950 while she was in a Kremlin hospital undergoing treatment for breast cancer. Angrily condemning such coercion as "absolutely opposed to the line of our party and absolutely opposed to any serious Communist thought", she allowed peasants forced into collective farms to return to private farming and effectively halted additional collectivization throughout 1951. This, as well as her support in 1947 for higher prices for agricultural products in defiance of her Soviet "advisers", along with her favoring the integration of kulaks into the emerging socialist order,  led Stalin to charge that Pauker had fatefully deviated into "peasantist, non-Marxist policies".
Pauker's "Moscow faction" (so called because many of its members, like Pauker, had spent years in exile in Moscow) was opposed by the "prison faction" (most of whom had spent the Fascist period in Romanian prisons, particularly Doftana Prison). Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, the de facto leader of the prison faction, had supported intensified agricultural collectivization, pushed for Lucre?iu P?tr??canu's trial and execution, and was a rigid Stalinist; however, he resented some strains of Soviet influence (which would become clear at the time of de-Stalinization when, as leader of Communist Romania, he was a determined opponent of Nikita Khrushchev).
Gheorghiu-Dej profited from the mounting anti-Semitism in Soviet policy and actively lobbied Joseph Stalin to take action against the Pauker faction. Gheorghiu-Dej traveled to Moscow in August 1951 to seek Stalin's approval for purging Pauker and her allies in the Secretariat (Vasile Luca and Teohari Georgescu).  But archival evidence has led Vladimir Tismaneanu to conclude that "Ana Pauker's downfall did not occur merely, or even primarily, because of Gheorghiu-Dej's skillful maneuvering—as some Romanian novels published in the 1980s would have us believe—but foremost because of Stalin's decision to initiate a major political purge in Romania." Pauker, Luca, and Georgescu were purged in May 1952, consolidating Gheorghiu-Dej's own grip over country and Party.
The charges against Ana Pauker increasingly focused on her positions on Zionism and Israel. She was accused of supporting "the subversive and espionage activities of the Israeli Legation and of the Zionists in the country," of making secret commitments to Israeli diplomats, of displaying a "nationalist attitude on the emigration of Jews to Israel," and of divulging secrets to "the enemy" (the United States) through its principal agent, "international Zionism." 
Pauker was arrested in February 1953 and was subjected to prolonged interrogations in preparation to be put on trial, as had occurred with Rudolf Slánský and others in the Prague Trials. After Stalin's death in March 1953 she was freed from jail and put under house arrest instead.
Following the rise of Nikita Khrushchev in the Soviet Union, Pauker was recast by Romania's leaders as having been a staunch ultra-Orthodox Stalinist, even though she had opposed or had attempted to moderate a number of Stalinist policies while she was in a leadership position. Following the Twentieth Party Congress in Moscow there were fears that Khrushchev might force the Romanian Party to rehabilitate Pauker and possibly install her as Romania's new leader.
In 1956, she was summoned for questioning by a high-level party commission, which insisted that she acknowledge her guilt. Again, she claimed she was innocent and demanded that she be reinstated as a party member, without success. Gheorghiu-Dej went on to scapegoat her, Vasile Luca, and Teohari Georgescu for their alleged Stalinist excesses in the late 1940s and early 1950s, despite the fact that they had urged moderation against Gheorghiu-Dej's insistence on dogmatism. The period when the three were in power was marked by political persecution and the murder of opponents (such as the infamous brainwashing experiments conducted at Pite?ti prison in 1949-1952). Gheorghiu-Dej, who had as much to account for, used moments like these to ensure the survival of his policies in a post-Stalinist age.
During her forcible retirement, Pauker was allowed to work as a translator from French and German for the Editura Politic? publishing house.
Marcel and Ana Pauker had three children:
• Tanio (1921–1922);
• Vlad (born 1926);
• Tatiana (1928–2011).
Vlad and Masha (Pauker's fourth child, also known as Marie was born in 1932, fathered by the Czech-Jewish Communist Eugen Fried) currently live in France.
Date: 1948, February 4. Treaty signing. Petru Groza, Vyachesla Mikhailovich Molotov, Ana Pauker and Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin http://www.criticalpast.com/video/65675032177_Treaty_Vyacheslav-Mikhailovich-Molotov_Ana-Pauker_Joseph-Vissarionovich-Stalin
Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance between the U.S.S.R and Romanian Peoples Republic. Dr. Petru Groza, signs for the Romanian Peoples Republic. Among those present are: Soviet dictator, Joseph Stalin, Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, and Ana Pauker, Romanian foreign minister. Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee. The official keeps a pen in a stand. The dignitaries move out of the room.
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Location: Moscow Russia Soviet Union
(1893–1960), prominent official of the Communist International (Comintern), Romanian Communist leader, and foreign minister of Romania. Born Ana Rabinsohn to impoverished Orthodox Jewish parents, Ana Pauker grew up in Bucharest and began teaching Hebrew and Judaica at a Jewish community school when she was 17 or 18. In 1915 she joined the fledgling Romanian Workers Social Democratic Party and supported its pro-Bolshevik wing after the 1917 Russian Revolution; four years later, she and her husband, the Romanian Jewish socialist Marcel Pauker, emerged within the leading ranks of the newly formed Romanian Communist Party (RCP).
In 1928 Pauker entered the Lenin School in Moscow, which trained the Comintern’s top functionaries, and rapidly rose into the Comintern hierarchy. Secretly returning to Romania in 1934, she was soon arrested and became the featured defendant in a highly publicized trial that made her an international celebrity in leftist circles. Released in a prisoner exchange between Romania and the Soviet Union in May 1941, she was immediately designated as the RCP’s official representative to the Comintern—even though she had not complied with her superiors’ demands that she publicly denounce her husband Marcel, who had been executed in 1938 during Stalin’s Great Terror.
Returning to Bucharest in September 1944, Pauker was the unofficial leader of the RCP for the first year of the postwar period and remained its behind-the-scenes leader for several years thereafter. In November 1947 she was appointed Romania’s foreign minister, the first Jew to serve as a government minister in that country, and the first woman in the modern world ever to hold to such a post. In that capacity, she supported the mass emigration of Romanian Jewry to Israel in the period between 1948 and 1952 (enabling the departure of roughly 100,000 Jews) and opposed the Kremlin-ordered show-trial of Romanian Zionists in 1950–1952. Arguing in the Politburo in 1948 that all Jews—regardless of class—were oppressed by antisemitism (thus conspicuously contradicting Marxist-Leninist doctrine on the issue), Pauker unsuccessfully tried to contravene the openly antisemitic campaign of Stalin’s final years—as she did with a host of other Soviet-imposed Stalinist policies, such as the forced collectivization of agriculture, the repression of “Titoists” within the party, and the construction of the infamous Danube–Black Sea Canal. In the end, her dissenting posture and the Kremlin’s increasing antisemitism doomed her: she was purged from all her positions in May 1952, arrested as an agent of “international Zionism” in February 1953, and prepared for an antisemitic show trial (similar to the Slánský trial in Prague in November 1952). However, Stalin’s death in March 1953 led to the cancellation of her trial. Pauker was released from prison but remained a disgraced pariah until her death.
Karl Pauker (January 1893, in Lviv – 14 August 1937, in Moscow) was an NKVD officer and head of Joseph Stalin's personal security until his arrest and execution.
Pauker came from a Jewish family in Lviv, which was then part of Austria-Hungary. Prior to the war he was a hairdresser working in the Budapest Opera, according to Sebag-Montefiore. He served in the Austro-Hungarian army in World War I and was taken as a prisoner of war by the Russians in 1916. Pauker elected to stay in Russia after the revolution and joined the Communist Party in 1918.
Pauker joined the Cheka and became Stalin's bodyguard in 1924. Pauker took an active part in the purges, including the executions of Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev.
He was dismissed in April 1937, according to Sebag-Montefiore, because he "knew too much and lived too well". He was arrested and executed quietly without trial in August 1937 and was not posthumously rehabilitated.
Swedish writer Jan Guillou has used K. V. Pauker as a pseudonym on the internet when he has, among other things, criticized Jewish influence in the early Soviet Union.
Some family members who perished in the Holocaust;
Shaul Pauker was born in 1885. He was a house painter and married to Tzirl. Prior to WWII he lived in Czernowitz, Romania. During the war he was in Rostov, Russia. Shaul was murdered/perished in August, 1942 in Rostov, Russia at the age of 57
Tzirl Pauker was born in Brodina, Romania in 1903 to Yakov. She was married to Shaul. Prior to WWII she lived in Czernowitz, Romania. During the war she was in Rostov, Russia . Tzirl was murdered/perished in 8,1942 in Rostov, Russia at the age of 39. This information is based on a Page of Testimony submitted by her son Zigmond Pauker of Beer Sheva.Zigmond also gave reports for his brothers;
Page of Testimony
Pauker, Anna Ana
Page of Testimony
Page of Testimony
Page of Testimony
Yonas Pauker was born in Czernowitz, Romania in 1938 to Shaul. He was a child. Prior to WWII he lived in Czernowitz, Romania. During the war he was in Rostov, Russia (UYonas was murdered/perished in 8,1942 in Rostov, Russia at the age of 4
Mina Rajner nee Pauker was born in Ciornohuzi, Romania to Nakhman. She was a housewife and married to Shimon. Prior to WWII she lived in Czernowitz, Romania. Mina was murdered/perished in Transnistria, Ukraine (USSR). This information is based on a Page of Testimony (displayed on left) submitted by her son, a Shoah survivor.