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Jewish Political Movements in the Early 20th Century

The General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Litah, Poyln un Rusland), generally called The Bund (Yiddish: ????‎, cognate to German: Bund, meaning federation or union) or the Jewish Labour Bund, was a secular Jewish socialist party in the Russian Empire, active between 1897 and 1920. In 1917 the Polish part of the Bund, which dated to the times when Poland was a Russian territory, seceded from the Russian Bund and created a new Polish General Labor Bund which continued to operate in Poland in the years between the two world wars. The Russian Bund was dissolved in 1920 and incorporated into the Communist Party. Other remnants of the Bund endured in various countries. A member of the Bund was called a Bundist.
Founding[edit]
The "General Jewish Labour Bund in Russia and Poland" was founded in Vilnius on October 7, 1897.[1] The name was inspired by the General German Workers' Association.[2] The Bund sought to unite all Jewish workers in the Russian Empire into a united socialist party, and also to ally itself with the wider Russian social democratic movement to achieve a democratic and socialist Russia. The Russian Empire then included Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine and most of present-day Poland, areas where the majority of the world's Jews then lived. They hoped to see the Jews achieve a legal minority status in Russia. Of all Jewish political parties of the time, the Bund was the most progressive regarding gender equality, with women making up more than one-third of all members.[3]
In 1901, the word 'Lithuania' was added to the name of the party.[2][4]
During the period of 1903–1904, the Bund was harshly affected by Czarist state repression. Between June 1903 and July 1904, 4,467 Bundists were arrested and jailed.[5]
As part of the Russian Social Democracy

 Bund

Members of the Bund with the bodies of their comrades, murdered during the Odessa pogrom in 1905
Given the Bund's secular and socialist perspective, it opposed what it viewed as the reactionary nature of traditional Jewish life in Russia. Created before the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), the Bund was a founding collective member at the RSDLP's first congress in Minsk in March 1898. For the next 5 years, the Bund was recognized as the sole representative of the Jewish workers in the RSDLP, although many Russian socialists of Jewish descent, especially outside of the Pale of Settlement, joined the RSDLP directly.
At the RSDLP's second congress in Brussels and London in August 1903, the Bund's autonomous position within the RSDLP was rejected under pressure by the Bolsheviks and the Bund's representatives left the Congress, the first of many splits in the Russian social democratic movement in the years to come.[6] The five representatives of the Bund at this Congress were Vladimir Kossowsky, Arkadi Kremer, Mikhail Liber, Vladimir Medem and Noah Portnoy.[7]
The Bund formally rejoined the RSDLP when all of its faction reunited at the Fourth (Unification) Congress in Stockholm in April 1906, with the support of the Mensheviks,[6] but the RSDLP remained fractured along ideological and ethnic lines. The Bund generally sided with the party's Menshevik faction led by Julius Martov and against the Bolshevik faction led by Vladimir Lenin during the factional struggles in the run-up to the Russian Revolution of 1917.[6]
5th Congress[edit]
The fifth congress of the Bund met in Zürich in June 1903. 30 delegates took part in the proceedings, representing the major city branches of the party and the Foreign Committee. Two issues dominated the debates; the upcoming congress of the RSDLP and the national question. During the debates there was a division between the older guard of the Foreign Committee (Kossovsky, Kremer and John (Yosef) Mill and the younger generation represented by Medem, Liber and Raphael Abramovitch. The younger group wanted to stress the Jewish national character of the party. In the end no compromise could be reached, and no resolution was adopted on the national question.[8]
1905 Revolution and its aftermath
In the Polish areas of the empire, the Bund was a leading force in the 1905 revolution. During the following years, the Bund went into a period of decay. The party tried to concentrate on labour activism around 1909–1910 and led strikes in ten cities. The strikes resulted in a deepened backlash for the party, and as of 1910 there were legal Bundist trade unions in only four cities, Bia?ystok, Vilnius, Riga and ?ód?. Total membership in Bundist unions was around 1,500. At the time of the eight party conference only nine local branches were represented (Riga, Vilnius, Bia?ystok, ?ód?, Bobruisk, Pinsk, Warsaw, Grodno and Dvinsk) with a combined membership of 609 (out of whom 404 were active).[9]
After the RSDLP finally split in 1912, the Bund became a federated part of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Menshevik) (by this time the Mensheviks had accepted the idea of a federated party organization).[10]
Parliamentary representation[edit]
At the 1906 First Duma elections, the Bund made an electoral agreement with the Lithuanian Labourers' Party (Trudoviks), which resulted in the election to the Duma of two (apparently non-Bundist) candidates supported by the Bund: Dr. Shmaryahu Levin for the Vilnius province and Leon Bramson for the Kaunas province. In total, there were twelve Jewish deputies in the Duma, falling to three in the Second Duma (February 1907 to June 1907), two in the Third Duma (1907–1912) and again three in the fourth, elected in 1912, none of them being affiliated to the Bund.[11]
Political outlook[edit]
The Bund eventually came to strongly oppose Zionism,[12] arguing that emigration to Palestine was a form of escapism. The Bund did not advocate separatism. Instead, it focused on culture, rather than a state or a place, as the glue of Jewish "nationalism." In this they borrowed extensively from the Austro-Marxist school, further alienating the Bolsheviks and Lenin. The Bund also promoted the use of Yiddish as a Jewish national language and to some extent opposed the Zionist project of reviving Hebrew.[13][14]
The Bund won converts mainly among Jewish artisans and workers, but also among the growing Jewish intelligentsia. It led a trade union movement of its own. It joined with the Poalei Zion (Labour Zionists) and other groups to form self-defense organisations to protect Jewish communities against pogroms and government troops. During the Russian Revolution of 1905 the Bund headed the revolutionary movement in the Jewish towns, particularly in Belarus and Ukraine.
Activities abroad[
Less than a year after the founding of the party, its Foreign Committee was set up in Geneva. Also within the same timespan, Bundist groups began to constitute themselves internationally. However, the Bund did not construct any world party (as did Poalei Zion). On the contrary, the Bund argued that it was a party for action inside the Russian empire. The Bundist groups abroad were not included into the party structures. In 1902, a United Organization of Workers' Associations and Support Groups to the Bund Abroad was founded. The groups affiliated to the United Organization played an important role in raising funds for the party.[15]
Between 1901–1903, the Foreign Committee was based in London.[15]
The United Organization, the Foreign Committee as well as the Union of Russian Social Democrats Abroad were all dissolved at the time of the Russian revolution of 1917.[15]
Separation of the Polish Bund
When Poland fell under German occupation in 1914, contact between the Bundists in Poland and the party centre in St. Petersburg became difficult. In November 1914 the Bund Central Committee appointed a separate Committee of Bund Organizations in Poland to run the party in Poland.[16] Theoretically the Bundists in Poland and Russia were members of the same party, but in practice the Polish Bundists operated as a party of their own.[17] In December 1917 the split was formalized, as the Polish Bundists held a clandestine meeting in Lublin and reconstituted themselves as a separate political party.[18]
1917

 Bund

A Bundist demonstration, 1917
The Bund was the only Jewish party that worked within the soviets.[19] Like other socialist parties in Russia, the Bund welcomed the February Revolution of 1917, but it did not support the October Revolution in which the Bolsheviks seized power. Like Mensheviks and other non-Bolshevik parties, the Bund called for the convening of the Russian Constituent Assembly long demanded by all Social Democratic factions.[20] The Bund's key leader in Petrograd during these months was Mikhail Liber, who was to be roundly denounced by Lenin. With the Russian Civil War and the increase in anti-Semitic pogroms by nationalists and Whites, the Bund was obliged to recognise the Soviet government and its militants fought in the Red Army in large numbers.
At the time of the 1917 upheavals, Mikhail Liber was elected president of the Bund.[21] In May 1917, a new Central Committee of the Bund was formed, consisting of Goldman, Erlich, Medem and Jeremiah Weinsthein. One Central Committee member, Medem, was in Poland at the time and couldn't travel to Saint Petersburg to meet with the rest of the Committee.[22]
Four Bund bureaus were represented as such among the 60 delegates to the May 1918 Menshevik Party conference: Moscow (Abramovich), Northern (Erlich), Western (Goldshtein, Melamed) and Occupied Lands (Aizenshtadt).[23]
The political changes at the time of the Russian revolution resulted in splits in the Bund. In Ukraine, Bund branches in cities like Bobruisk,[clarification needed]Ekaterinoburg[clarification needed] and Odessa had formed 'leftwing Bund groups' in late 1918. In February 1919 these groups (representing the majority in the Bund in Ukraine) adopted the name Communist Bund (Kombund), re-constituting themselves as an independent party. Moisei Rafes, who had been a leading figure of the Bund in Ukraine, became the leader of the Ukrainian Kombund.[24][25][26] The Communist Bund supported the Soviet side in the Russian Civil War.[27][28] Other members of the Bund (representing the minority in the Bund in Ukraine) at the end of 1918 formed the Social Democratic Bund (Bund SD). Leaders of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Bund - Sore Fox, A. Litvak, David Petrovsky(Lipets) openly opposed the communist ideology and policy of confiscation of property, usurpation of political power, arrests and persecution of political opponents.[29]
The Bund also had elected officials at the local level. During the 1917 October Revolution and Russian Civil War, the mayor of the predominantly Jewish Ukrainian town of Berdychiv(53,728 inhabitants, 80% of whom were Jewish at the 1897 census) was a Bundist, David Petrovsky (Lipets).[30]
Final split at the Gomel conference[edit]
The remainder Bund in Russia held a conference (the Twelfth Conference of the Bund) on April 12–19, 1920 in Gomel, where the party was split into two separate parties, the majority Communist Bund (Kombund) and the minority Social Democratic Bund.[31][32]
The fourteen point of the resolution "On the Present Situation and the Tasks of Our Party" stated that
Summing up the experience of the last year, the Twelfth Conference of the Bund finds:
1 that the Bund, in principle, had adopted the communist platform since the Eleventh Conference,
2 that the Programme of the Communist Party, which is also the programme of the Soviet government, corresponds with the fundamental platform of the Bund,
3 that a ’united socialist front’ with principled opponents of Soviet power, who draw a line between the proletariat and its government, is impossible,
4 that the moment has come when the Bund can relinquish its official oppositional stand and take upon itself responsibility for the Soviet government’s policy.[33]
The resolution on organisational questions stated that
The logical consequence of the political stand adopted by the Bund is the latter’s entry into the R.C.P on the same basis as the Bund’s membership of the R.S.D.L.P.. The conference authorised the C.C. of the Bund to see to it, as an essential condition, that the Bund preserve within the R.C.P. the status of an autonomous organisation of the Jewish proletariat.[33]
Legacy[edit]
In 1921, the Communist Bund dissolved itself and its members sought admission to the Communist Party.[33] As of 1923, the last Bundist groups had ceased to function in Soviet Russia.[32] Many former Bundists, like Mikhail Liber and David Petrovsky, perished during Stalin's purges in the 1930s. The Polish Bundists continued their activities until 1948. During the latter half of the 20th century the Bundist legacy was represented through the International Jewish Labor Bund, a federation of local Bundist groups around the world.
Former Bundists who became high level officials in the USSR[edit]
? Israel Moiseevich Leplevsky (1894–1938), Bundist in 1904–1907, Minister ("People's Commissar") of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1937–1938)
? Moisei Leibovits Ruhymovych (1889–1939), Bundist in 1904–1913, Minister ("People's Commissar") for military affairs of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic (1917–1918) and Minister ("People's Commissar") for Defense Industry of the USSR (1936–1937)
? David Petrovsky (1886-1937), Bundist in 1902–1919, a Chief of the General Directorate of military educational institutions (GUVUZ) [34] of the Red Army (1920-1924), a member of the Presidium of the Executive Committee of the Communist International (1924-1929), a member of the Presidium to the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy (1929-1932), a Chief of the Department of higher and secondary technical educational institutions (GLAVVTUZ) in the Ministry (People's Commissariat) of Soviet Heavy Industry (1932-1937).
The Bundists in North America[edit]
See also: International Jewish Labor Bund
Among the exiled Bundists who went on with Socialist politics in America was Baruch Charney Vladeck (1886–1938), elected to the New York Board of Aldermen as a Socialist in 1917, defeated in 1921 but re-elected in 1937 to the newly formed New York City Council running on the American Labor Party ticket. He was also the manager of The Jewish Daily Forward from 1918 till his death.[35]
Moishe Lewis (1888–1950) was a Bundist leader in his Polish (now Belarusian) hometown Svislosz before he emigrated to Canada in 1922.[36] He was the father of David Lewis(1909–1981), a leader of the New Democratic Party in Canada.
The American Labour leader David Dubinsky (1892–1982), though never formally a member of the party, had joined the bakers' union, which was controlled by the Bund, and was elected assistant secretary within the union by 1906. He made his way to the United States in 1911. He later became a member of the Socialist Party of America, helped found the American Labor Party in 1936 and was from 1932 till 1966 the leader of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.[37]
Between 1913 and 1917, working under the name Max Goldfarb, David Petrovsky (1886–1937) was a member of the Central Committee of the Jewish Socialist Federation of America, a member of the Socialist Party of America, and the editor of The Forward.
Footnotes[edit]
1 ^ Hirsz Abramowicz; Eva Zeitlin Dobkin; Dina Abramowicz; Jeffrey Shandler; David E. Fishman (1999). Profiles of a Lost World: Memoirs of East European Jewish Life Before World War II. Wayne State University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8143-2784-5.
2 ^ Jump up to:a b Minczeles, Henri. Histoire générale du Bund: un mouvement révolutionnaire juif. Paris: Editions Austral, 1995. p. 61
3 ^ Shepherd, Naomi (1994). A price below rubies: Jewish women as rebels and radicals. Harvard University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-674-70411-4.
4 ^ Zimmerman, Joshua D. (2004). Poles, Jews, and the Politics of Nationality. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 123.
5 ^ Minczeles, Henri. Histoire générale du Bund: un mouvement révolutionnaire juif. Paris: Editions Austral, 1995. p. 119
6 ^ Jump up to:a b c Angel Smith; Stefan Berger (1999). Nationalism, Labour and Ethnicity: 1870–1939. Manchester University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-7190-5052-7.
7 ^ Vital, David (2001). A people apart: a political history of the Jews in Europe, 1789–1939. Oxford University Press. p. 944. ISBN 978-0-19-924681-6. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
8 ^ Minczeles, Henri. Histoire générale du Bund: un mouvement révolutionnaire juif. Paris: Editions Austral, 1995. p. 130
9 ^ Johnpoll, Bernard K. The Politics of Futility; The General Jewish Workers Bund of Poland, 1917–1943. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1967. pp. 33–34
10 ^ Johnpoll, Bernard K. The Politics of Futility; The General Jewish Workers Bund of Poland, 1917–1943. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1967. p. 35
11 ^ Levin, Dov (2000). The Litvaks: a short history of the Jews in Lithuania. Berghahn Books. p. 283. ISBN 978-1-57181-264-3. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
12 ^ Walter Laqueur (2003). The History of Zionism. TaurisParke Paperbacks. p. 273. ISBN 978-1-86064-932-5.
13 ^ David E. Fishman (2005). The Rise of Modern Yiddish Culture. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-8229-4272-6.
14 ^ Schreiber, Mordecai; Schiff, Alvin I.; Klenicki, Leon (2003). The Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia. Schreiber Pub. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-887563-77-2.
15  Jacobs, Jack Lester. Jewish Politics in Eastern Europe: The Bund at 100. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001. pp. 46–51
16 ^ Johnpoll, Bernard K. The Politics of Futility; The General Jewish Workers Bund of Poland, 1917–1943. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1967. p. 37
17 ^ Johnpoll, Bernard K. The Politics of Futility; The General Jewish Workers Bund of Poland, 1917–1943. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1967. pp. 52–53, 61
18 ^ Johnpoll, Bernard K. The Politics of Futility; The General Jewish Workers Bund of Poland, 1917–1943. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1967. pp. 69–70
19 ^ Johnpoll, Bernard K. The Politics of Futility; The General Jewish Workers Bund of Poland, 1917–1943. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1967. p. 56
20 ^ Robert Paul Browder; Alexander F Kerensky (1961). The Russian Provisional Government, 1917: Documents. Stanford University Press. p. 428. ISBN 978-0-8047-0023-8.
21 ^ Johnpoll, Bernard K. The Politics of Futility; The General Jewish Workers Bund of Poland, 1917–1943. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1967. p. 59
22 ^ Johnpoll, Bernard K. The Politics of Futility; The General Jewish Workers Bund of Poland, 1917–1943. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1967. p. 61
23 ^ Brovkin, Vladimir. N. (1991). The Mensheviks after October: socialist opposition and the rise of the Bolshevik dictatorship. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 201–204. ISBN 978-0-8014-9976-0. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
24 ^ Nora Levin (1991-01-01). Jews in the Soviet Union Since 1917: Paradox of Survival. NYU Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8147-5051-3.
25 ^ Abraham Malamat; Haim H Ben-Sasson (1976). A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press. p. 966. ISBN 978-0-674-39731-6.
26 ^ Benjamin Pinkus (1990-01-26). The Jews of the Soviet Union: The History of a National Minority. Cambridge University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-521-38926-6.
27 ^ Elizabeth A. Wood (2005). Performing Justice: Agitation Trials In Early Soviet Russia. Cornell University Press. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-8014-4257-5.
28 ^ Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson (March 2007). Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes: Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. C.H.Beck. p. 1186. ISBN 978-3-406-55918-1.
29 ^ Joshua Meyers, “A Portrait of Transition: From the Bund to Bolshevism in the Russian Revolution,” Jewish Social Studies: History, Culture, Society n.s. 24, no. 2 (Winter 2019): 107–134. Copyright © 2019 The Trustees of Indiana University. doi: 10.2979/jewisocistud.24.2.09
30 ^ Ettinger, Shmuel; Shmuel Spector (2008). "Berdichev". Encyclopaedia Judaica. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
31 ^ Michael Brenner; Derek J. Penslar (1998). In Search of Jewish Community: Jewish Identities in Germany and Austria, 1918–1933. Indiana University Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-253-21224-5.
32 ^ Jump up to:a b Fruma Mohrer; Marek Web, eds. (1998). Guide to the Yivo Archives. Yivo Institute for Jewish Research/M.E. Sharpe. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-7656-0130-8.
33 ^ Jump up to:a b c explanatory note to Lenin, Vladimir I. (April 19 – May 6, 1920). "To Members of the Politbureau of the C.C., R.C.P.(B.)". Marxists Internet Archive. Lenin Internet Archive (2003). Retrieved 2009-11-10., from documents archived at the Central Party Archives, Institute of Marxism-Leninism of the C.C., C.P.S.TJ.
34 ^ The General Directorate of military educational institutions: Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation - Encyclopediahttp://encyclopedia.mil.ru/encyclopedia/dictionary/details_rvsn.htm?id=5376@morfDictionary
35 ^ Gitelman, Zvi Y. (2003). The Emergence of Modern Jewish Politics: Bundism and Zionism in Eastern Europe. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-8229-4188-0. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
36 ^ Fuerstenberg, Adam. "The Marvellous Trajectory of David Lewis' Life and Career". Toronto: Beth Tzedec Congregation. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
37 ^ Robert D. Parmet (2005-07-30). The Master Of Seventh Avenue: David Dubinsky And The American Labor Movement. NYU Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8147-6711-5.
38 Further reading[edit]
• Jack Jacobs (ed.), Jewish Politics in Eastern Europe: The Bund at 100. New York: New York University Press, 2001.
• Alfred Katz, "Bund: The Jewish Socialist Labor Party," The Polish Review, vol. 10, no. 3 (Summer 1965), pp. 67–74.
• Molly Crabapple, "My Great-Grandfather the Bundist," New York Review of Books, 6 Oct. 2018. [1]
39
The pictures are found here;
http://yivo1000towns.cjh.org/search_results.asp?city_town=&country_id=0&KW_001=bund&KW_002=&KW_003=&KW_101=&KW_102=&KW_103=&start_year=&end_year=&photographer=&SearchType=Compound&Action=Search  

The Bund

Bund

#B-001

1905 
Siedlce 
 
"Wounded Jews. This photo of "young revolutionaries" the commander of a Tsarist regiment claimed he had attacked (inside a synagogue after a May Day demonstration by the Bund [Jewish Socialist Labor Party]) was sent to Minister Stolypin with a protest." ('Jewish Daily Forward')

Bund

#B-002

890's 
Siauliai 
 
Formal portrait of a Jewish Socialist Bund group: (l-r) David Moffs ("now in Pretoria, South Africa"), Morris Vinocur (Weiner, "now in Chicago"), "Orke" Kessler, Bernard Feldman (now "Forward" representative in Springfield, Ma.) ('Forward' spread, 1937).

Bund

#B-003

1905 
Vileyka 
 
Polish and Russian Social Democrats and members of the Jewish Socialist Bund pose with banners and wreaths during an outdoor demonstration to honor the victims of the October 1905 pogrom.

Bund

#B-004

1930's 
Cracow 
 
Portrait of Dr. Leon Feiner, Dr. Salo Fiszgrund, Dr. Henryk Schreiber, Bursztyn, Herman Berger, Kuther, Wolfgang, Moyshe Pelcman-Glazer, Kupfer, and other activists of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-005

1905 
Grodno 
 
Studio portrait of young men and woman, members of the [Jewish Socialist] Bund. (Part of a photo essay in the 'Jewish Daily Forward', 1929: "Jewish Revolutionaries Of The Past.")

Bund

#B-006

1920's 
Gabin 
 
Studio portrait of (right to left) Henokh Goldschmidt, his wife Rokhl Preyzinger Goldschmidt and their friend Shloyme Adler. Goldscmidt, from a Hasidic background, became active in revolutionary movements. He was a leader of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-007

1909 
Gabin 
 
Four young leather workers outdoors: (r to l) an apprentice, Yekel Tiber, Henokh Goldschmidt (who had just left the yeshiva) and a young worker from Kutno. Goldschmidt, from a Hasidic background, later became a leader of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-008

ca. 1920s 
Gdynia 
 
Outdoor portrait of members of Tsukunft (Jewish Socialist Bund youth group): (4th from left) Sergej Nutkiewicz.

Bund

#B-009

1938 
Grabow 
 
Outdoor portrait of members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-010

Kalisch 
 
Studio portrait of Yudi Perle, a Tsarist agent-provocateur, member of the local committee of the Jewish Socialist Bund during 1903-1905.

Bund

#B-011

1933 
Kazimierz 
 
Members of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund) posing in uniform, at their first summer camp.

Bund

#B-012

1933 
Kazimierz 
 
Young people working outdoors by a tent, at the first summer camp of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund).

Bund

#B-013

1936 
Kazimierz 
 
Members of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund) posing by a horse-drawn wagon of hay at a summer camp.

Bund

#B-014

1936 
Kazimierz 
 
Members of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund) posing in a clearing in the woods while attending summer camp.

Bund

#B-015

1936 
Kazimierz 
 
"Hygiene Day" at a summer camp run by Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund): men and women wearing white paper hats in the woods.

Bund

#B-016

1936-37 
Kazimierz 
 
"Line-up": young men and women stand at attention at a summer camp run by Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund).

Bund

#B-017

1936 
Kazimierz 
 
At the castle of Kazimierz the Great: members of a Tsukunft (youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund) summer camp on a hike.

Bund

#B-018

1936 
Kazimierz 
 
On a hike to the castle of Kazimierz the Great: members of a Tsukunft (youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund) summer camp posing in front of the bastille.

Bund

#B-019

1905 
Pinsk 
 
Formal portrait in the snow of the Bund Fighting Organization . ('Jewish Daily Forward' caption in Yiddish:) "...When Jewish youth armed themselves to defend themselves against the bands perpetrating pogroms..."

Bund

#B-020

1906 
Radziwillow 
 
Studio portrait of the Jewish Socialist Bund organization of the city.

Bund

#B-021

1905 
Rovno 
 
"Bundists of 20 years ago. Interesting Russian-Jewish types of the [Jewish Socialist] Bund... Second from right [standing] is D. Shier, our 'Forward' representative in Minneapolis." ("Jewish Daily Forward" Yiddish caption.)

Bund

#B-022

pub. Nov. 21, 1926 
Warsaw 
photo by: Kacyzne, Alter 
"A cooperative workshop of the [Jewish Socialist Labor] Bund" ('Jewish Daily Forward' caption).

Bund

#B-023

ca. 1905 
Chudnov 
 
Vignetted portraits of three young men, "members of the [Jewish Socialist] Bund's self-defense organization killed April 23-26, 1905 in Chudnov" (printed in Russian and Yiddish). (Left to right) P. Gorvits, Y. Brodski, and A. Fleysher. (A postcard.)

Bund

#B-024

Minsk 
 
Formal outdoor family portrait: (Yiddish caption) "Dr. Dovid Medem, G. [Gina]Medem's father, and his children: the child in the blouse [lower r] is the little Vladimir Medem [later a Bund leader]." Three men wear uniforms; woman in puffed sleeves stands (r).

Bund

#B-025

1905 
Minsk 
 
Portrait of members of the Jewish Socialist Bund wounded in the October pogrom: young men and women, some bandaged or wearing slings.

Bund

#B-026

Minsk 
 
Portrait of Zhenia Horowitz, a prominent member of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-027

ca. 1905 
Odessa 
 
After a pogrom: the corpses of murdered victims, members of the Jewish Socialist Bund, draped in banners. (Included in a photo spread: "Odessa: The Murdered Members Of The Self-Defense," in the Petrograd Yiddish newspaper "Der Fraynd" [The Friend].)

Bund

#B-028

ca. 1900 
Odessa 
photo by: Mulman, K. 

Vignetted studio portrait of Yankl, a young man wearing an embroidered Russian blouse, standing, with arms crossed: (written on back in Yiddish) "Yankl, one of the founders of the Bund together with me, B. Litman, Toronto, Canada."

Bund

#B-029

Odessa 
 
Studio portrait of Greynim, a young man (with arms crossed, in a striped Russian blouse): (written on back in Yiddish) "Greynim, one of the first ten members of the Bund, together with me, B. Litman, Toronto."

Bund

#B-030

Dec. 8-17, 1917 
St. Petersburg 
 
Portrait of participants (men and women) to the 8th conference of the [Jewish Socialist] Bund. Bund leaders sit in the front row: (r-l from the 3rd person) M. Litvak, M. Rafes, Liber, Rakhmiel Vaynshteyn, Raphael Abramovitch, Henryk Erlich (of Warsaw).

Bund

#B-031

1904 
Yakutsk 
 
Outdoor portrait of "the group of political exiles who barricaded themselves in Romanov's house" (Yiddish caption): men (some in fur hats) and women near wooden buildings. (A photograph published by the Jewish Socialist Bund.)

Bund

#B-032

1904 
Yakutsk 
 
Outdoor portrait of Yuri Matlakhov, a Social Democrat killed on March 4: a young man in winter clothes in the snow. (A photograph published by the Jewish Socialist Bund.)

Bund

#B-033

1904 
Yakutsk 
 
Montage of (numbered) photographs and illustrations relating to the Yakutsk Protest Group (published by the Jewish Socialist Bund): (no.37) the Romanov house where protesters were barricaded; (no. 18) "The dog -- the letter-carrier" (Yiddish captions).

Bund

#B-034

pub. 1905 
Zhitomir 
 
Studio portrait of Leybe Vaynshteyn, a member of the Jewish Socialist Bund, killed on April 24, 1905 during a pogrom as he took part in its self-defense activities. (A postcard published by the Bund.)

Bund

#B-035

Before 1905 
Warsaw 
 
Vignetted studio portraits of (left) E. Cohen and (right) twenty-two-year-old Shloyme Margolin, both killed during a demonstration in April 1905. (From a photo spread on a postcard printed by the Jewish Socialist Bund.)

Bund

#B-036

ca. 1906 
Kaunas 
 
Studio portrait of young men, members of a Jewish Socialist Bund self-defense group: (accompanying Yiddish letter by N. Levine) "Beynush Korber [now known as Benny Garber] is sitting in the bottom row, with the littlewhiskers."

Bund

#B-037

Oct. 15, 1923 
Telsiai 
 
Group portrait of members of the Jewish Socialist Bund: young men and women. ( Standing, third from right, with a pince-nez) Sheve Raivits, a teacher at the Jewish 'folkshul' (elementary school).

Bund

#B-038

ca. 1923 
Telsiai 
 
Studio portrait of Jewish Socialist Bund members: (standing, center) Nisn Pups, "a well-known Bundist leader in Vilna and in Lithuania... Came to a violent end in the 'Red Garden of Eden' [the Soviet Union]..." (1st and 2nd from l) Raivits and Yafe.

Bund

#B-039

Telsiai 
 
Portrait of Nisn Pups, a leader of the Bund in Vilna and Lithuania who later met a violent death in the Soviet Union.

Bund

#B-040

Turn of the century 
Vilkaviskis 
 
The boy's secondary school: (on back in Yiddish) "This is the building where the soldiers used to muster, and also where big meetings of the brushmakers would take place, as well as discussions between the Jewish Socialist Bund and Poalei Zion members."

Bund

#B-041

ca. 1930 
Riga 
 
Participants in a Jewish Socialist Bund demonstration pose on a street. (Yiddish signs, l to r) "Adults -- Work, Children -- Bread!..."; "Against Militarization!"; "For the Socialist Order!"; "Working Youth. All in the ranks of the Bund!"

Bund

#B-042

1904 
Pinsk 
 
Studio portrait of Jewish Socialist Bund members, two of whom (Joe Kaplan and Charlie Siegel) later emigrated to the USA.

Bund

#B-043

Tomaszew 
 
The Bund family with their many children.

Bund

#B-044

January 27-28, 1934 
Latvia 
 
At a Jewish Socialist Bund conference: a man (standing, r) addresses participants. (Yiddish banners) "Work and bread for every worker" and "Latvian S.D. [Social Democrats] against the bourgeoisie!" (Portraits, 2nd and 3rd from r) Vladimir Medem and Karl Marx.

Bund

#B-045

1937 
Iwanicz Zdroj 
 
Abraham Penzik (right) and his daughter Irena (left). With them are a Jewish industrialist and two members of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-046

1930 
Miedzyrzec 
 
Studio portrait of the city council: (l to r) Shloyme Kamien (a Folkist); Bentsien Sheynmel (a Folkist); the mayor of Korbak (a non-Jew); Berl Vernitsky (B. Warren), a member of the Jewish Socialist Bund; and Gursky (a non-Jew), a deputy of the Sejm.

Bund

#B-047

1933 
Pinsk 
 
Outdoor portrait of young members of the Jewish Socialist Bund's Morgnshtern sports club: (seated, left to right, in dark suits) Bund board members L. Kaplan, Y. Urbaytl and Sh. Mandlboym; (seated between them) instructor T.L. Fraynd.

Bund

#B-048

1936 
Miedzeszyn 
photo by: Vishniac, Roman 
Portrait of a young boy - an actor from the Jewish Socialist Bund's "Mir kumen on" (We Are Coming), a film about the Medem Sanatorium.

Bund

#B-049

ca. 1900 
Chudnov 
 
Portrait of members of the fire brigade (est. 1891), with pump and water-wagons: (4th from r, marked with arrow) Khayem Taffel. (Written in Yiddish) "Among them are participants in the [Jewish Socialist] Bund's self-defense group killed [in 1905]."

Bund

#B-050

1905 
Odessa 
 
Group portrait of a Bund self-defense group at the cemetery with the banner-draped corpses of three of their leaders, Visotski, Sheltipsi and Yekhiel.

Bund

#B-051

ca. 1935 
Miedzeszyn 
 
A line of children on a hillside at the Jewish Socialist Bund 's Medem Sanatorium. (Yiddish headline) "On the tenth anniversary of the Medem Sanatorium."

Bund

#B-052

ca. 1900 
Miedzyrzec 
photo by: Rafael 
Studio portrait of `Avrom der blinder' (Avrom the Blind), a Jewish Socialist Bund organizer of workers in the brush manufacturing industry.

Bund

#B-053

1920s-30s 
Vilna 
photo by: Grossman, Moryc 

The house in which the Jewish Socialist Bund was founded in 1897.

Bund

#B-054

Before World War I 
Pinsk 
 
Studio portrait of young members of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-055

Lipno 
 
Portrait of members of the Bund.

Bund

#B-056

1936 
Lodz 
 
Speakers address crowds at the funeral of Yisroel Lichtenstein, leader of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-057

1936 
Lodz 
 
Crowds watch the funeral procession of Yisroel Lichtenstein, leader of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-058

1936 
Lodz 
 
Notables at the funeral of Yisroel Lichtenstein, leader of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-059

1914 
Lodz 
 
Studio portrait of Khaim Zylbermintz, a member of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-060

1908 
Lodz 
 
Studio portrait of four young people, members of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-061

Before World War I 
Lodz 
 
Studio portrait of Hersh Leyb Brenman, an activist in the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-062

1930's 
Lodz 
 
Members of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund) standing in a courtyard at Przejarz No.9.

Bund

#B-063

1930s 
Lubartow 
 
Members of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund) in uniform at a ceremony around a flagpole.

Bund

#B-064

1931 
Lublin 
 
Portrait of the Kalmen Kamashnmakher Chapter of the Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund), in uniform and holding copies of the Tsukunft publication, "Youth-Waker."

Bund #B-065
Bund

#B-066

1925-39 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Shmulik Minawsky, from Przytyk and another child, at an outdoor meal at the Jewish Socialist Bund's Medem Sanatorium.

Bund

#B-067

1936 
Minsk Mazowiecki 
 
In a reading room at the Jewish Socialist Bund's Medem Sanatorium: two boys, one of whom reads the Yiddish newspaper, "Folkstsaytung."

Bund

#B-068

1925-39 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Three girls at an outdoor meal at the Jewish Socialist Bund's Medem Sanatorium.

Bund

#B-069

ca. 1936 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Two boys at the Jewish Socialist Bund's Medem Sanatorium: (Yiddish caption) "They don't want to go home."

Bund

#B-070

1936 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Scenes from "Mir Kumen On," Alexander Ford's 1936 film about the Jewish Socialist Bund's Medem Sanatorium: children eating. (Yiddish captions, clockwise from top) "He thinks it's forbidden to eat seconds," "How tasty it is," "Bon Appetit!"

Bund

#B-071

ca. 1935 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Two children at a dovecote at the Jewish Socialist Bund's Medem Sanatorium.

Bund

#B-072

1936 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Scene from "Mir Kumen On" (We Are On The Way), Alexander Ford's 1936 film about the Jewish Socialist Bund's Medem Sanatorium: a girl reads the "news of the day" at breakfast. (Yiddish caption) "They give you a lot of food there, five times a day..."

Bund

#B-073

1925-39 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Nuns pose for an outdoor portrait on a visit to the Jewish Socialist Bund's Medem Sanatorium.

Bund

#B-074

1938 
Miedzeszyn 
 
While on a trip to the Jewish Socialist Bund's Medem Sanatorium: Jewish youth from Otwock pose for a groupportrait in front of a picket fence.

Bund

#B-075

1930's 
Miedzyrzec 
 
(Left to right) Rokhl Elncwajg, Feyge Goldfarb, Toyvye Czarny, and Moyshe Erdfarb, members of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund), in a small boat.

Bund

#B-076

1930s 
Miedzyrzec 
 
Studio portrait of young activists of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund): Feyge Goldfarb, Toyvye Czarny, Rokhl Elncwajg, Moyshe Erdfarb, and others. The banners read (in Yiddish): "Knowledge Is Power! Unity Is Power!"

Bund

#B-077

1920s-30s 
Mlawa 
 
Studio portrait of Yisroel Alter, brother of Victor Alter, a leader of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-078

1934 
Mloczyn 
 
Members of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund) and Morgenshtern from Mlawa, posing during an outing.

Bund

#B-079

1935 
Novoyelnya 
 
Men and women posing in uniform at the Y. Chmurner camp duirng the regional conference of the youth movement of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-080

1935 
Novoyelnya 
 
Members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund, pose at the Y. Chmurner camp during a regional conference.

Bund

#B-081

1920s-30s 
Nowy Dwor 
 
Khayem Rudawski, leader of the local Jewish Socialist Bund, speaking to a crowd at a May Day demonstration in the marketplace. The banner (right of center) reads in Polish and Yiddish, "Down With Militarism."

Bund

#B-082

1936 
Pinsk 
 
At an exhibition at the Jewish Trade School for Girls: a montage of photographs (Karl Marx at center) and publications in Yiddish, Russian and Polish from the first seven years of the Jewish Labor Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia (founded in 1897).

Bund

#B-083

1906 
Pinsk 
 
Bund activists: (sitting r-l) Moyshe Adler, shoemaker; Shloyme Zeleznikow, leader of a self-defense group; Yankev Gurin, one of the first political prisoners from Pinsk; Zelig, died fighting Petlyura's forces; (standing) Shimen and Moyshe Furman.

Bund

#B-084

1905 
Pinsk 
 
Portrait of members of the local Jewish Socialist Bund party committee.

Bund

#B-085

Before 1937 
Pinsk 
photo by: Katz 

Studio portrait of the Mikhalevich circle of the Yugnt Bund Tsukunft (Bundist youth group), among them A. J. Szlakman (3rd from left, 2nd row) and "Blind" Motl Fishko (seated, 2nd from right). (Two girls hold a portrait of the group's namesake.)

Bund

#B-086

1931 
Piotrkow 
 
On a trip: members of the Tsukunft and Morgnshtern, two youth groups of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-087

1920s-30s 
Plock photo by: Nowoczesna

Local leaders of the Jewish Socialist Bund gathered for a studio portrait on the occasion of member G. Spector's departure for Switzerland.

Bund

#B-088

1937 
Pruszkow 
 
Portrait of young and old members of the Jewish Socialist Bund. (Yiddish banner) "Long Live The International Proletariat."

Bund

#B-089

1930 
Pruzhany 
 
Outdoor portrait of members of the Jewish Socialist Bund, posing with a portrait of Vladimir Medem (right).

Bund

#B-090

February 27, 1939 
Peremyshl 
 
A board meeting of the I. L. Peretz library dedicated to the 24th anniversary of I. L. Peretz's death, held in the local Jewish Socialist Bund office. The banner (hung on the left wall) reads "Freedom--Equality--Brotherhood."

Bund

#B-091

February 2, 1939 
Peremyshl 
 
Group portrait of the board of the I.L. Peretz Library in the Jewish Socialist Bund office during a celebration of the 29th anniversary of the library's founding.

Bund

#B-092

1906 
Radziwillow 
 
Studio portrait of members of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-093

ca. 1904 
Siedlce 
 
Studio portrait of intellectuals and cultural activists: (seated, r-l) Rozenzumen of the Bund; writer and editor Yoshue (Joshua) Goldberg; playwright Yoyel (Joel) Mastbaum; feuilletonist and dramaturg Yankev (Jacob) Tenenboim; (standing, r-l) culture activist Moyshe Mandelman; Peysekh Sapozshnik of the Bund; Avrom Ziklugens; Meyer Slushni, "a revolutionary."

Bund

#B-094

1903 
Stressin 
 
Studio portrait of members of the [Jewish Socialist] Bund. ('Jewish Daily Forward' caption in English:) "An interesting group of revolutionaries..."

Bund

#B-095

1902 
Lyady 
 
Studio portrait of members of the local organization of the [Jewish Socialist] Bund, young men dressed in the style of Russian proletarians. (Part of a photo essay in the "Jewish Daily Forward," 1927: "Bundist Men And Women Of The Past.")

Bund

#B-096

1905 
Riga 
 
Studio portrait: "The General Executive Board of the [Jewish Socialist] Bund in Riga..." ('Jewish Daily Forward' caption, 1928.)

Bund

#B-097

1906 
Kishinev 
 
Studio portrait: "The executive committee of the [Jewish Socialist] Bund in Kishinev... Standing far right is M. L. Polin, now of Baltimore. The woman in the picture is Khayke Polin, his sister." (From "Forward' photo essay on revolutionaries, 1932.)

Bund

#B-098

1904 
Berdichev 
 
Studio portrait: seven young men and a woman (standing center), members of the the [Jewish Socialist] Bund. (Part of a 'Jewish Daily Forward' photo spread, 1934: "Jewish Revolutionaries Of The Past.")

Bund

#B-099

1905 
Vitebsk 
 
Studio portrait: "'Yoshke the tinsmith' and 'Moshke the curly head' -- as these two young people were known in the [Jewish Socialist] Bundist circles... Between them stand the sisters Khane and Mishke, also active in tbe Bund..." ('Forward', 1934.)

Bund

#B-100

1928 
Siemiatycze 
 
Portrait of the Committee of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund: (seated, l-r) Yankl Szmarik (Treasurer); Anshl Czechanowicz (Chairman); Shaye Trotz (Chairman); and M. Zolts, S. Sonenfeld, Zalmen Kominiar, Ides Goldberg and others.

Bund

#B-101

Skidel 
 
Members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund, pose at an outdoor meeting.

Bund

#B-102

1917 
Skierniewice 
 
Outdoor portrait of men and women members of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-103

May 1, 1931 
Staszow 
photo by: Rotenberg, A. 

May Day: members of the Jewish Socialist Bund posing for an outdoor group portrait. The flag reads in Yiddish: "Long Live The Bund."

Bund

#B-104

June 2-3, 1930 
Stolin 
 
At the convention: members of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund) from Pinsk posing for an outdoor group portrait.

Bund

#B-105

1930 
Sucha 
 
Children from the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund on a trip to the mountains.

Bund

#B-106

1927 
Svisloch 
 
Studio portrait of 2 children of Leyzer and Soreke Fuks. (Leyzer was a worker in a leather factory, and a memberof the Jewish Socialist Bund. Soreke, a community activist, was known as "Soreke dem bords" (Soreke, Beard's) in reference to her father.)

Bund

#B-107

After World War I 
Svisloch 
 
Studio portrait of Neshke Sulies, one of the first women workers to join the Jewish Socialist Bund. She was also active in the 'khevre line' (society to give overnight lodging).

Bund

#B-108

1908 
Svisloch 
 
Vignetted studio portrait of Moyshe Kanengiser, a member of the Jewish Socialist Bund. He worked in a leather factory until 1908 and then moved to Warsaw where he trained as a dental laboratory technician.

Bund

#B-109

1908 
Svisloch 
 
Studio portrait of Alter Lewinczyk and an unidentified Russian teacher. (Both were members of the Jewish Socialist Bund.)

Bund

#B-110

1919 
Szydlowiec 
 
Studio portrait of Weinreich, a leading activist in the local Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-111

1928 
Tarnow 
 
Outdoor portrait of members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund, posing with a portrait of an unidentified political figure).

Bund

#B-112

May 1, 1930 
Tarnow 
 
On May Day: members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund, assembled outdoors under a balcony, holding a banner and framed portraits of political figures (including Vladimir Medem and Karl Marx).

Bund

#B-113

1929 
Tarnow 
 
Group portrait of members of the 'Bundishe boyuvke' (the "tough squad" of the Jewish Socialist Bund) who acted as marshals in the May Day demonstration. (Young men in front hold a framed portrait of an unidentified political figure.)

Bund

#B-114

1927 
Tarnow 
 
Outdoor portrait of children and staff of a summer camp for working-class children sponsored by the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-115

January 18, 1933 
Tomaszew 
 
Studio portrait of Jakubowicz, a member of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-116

Late 1930s 
Warsaw 
 
Avrumele Szenker's grave, just visited. The tombstone reads in Yiddish: "...the son of Arn and Freyde, shot to death at the age of 5 by fascist murderers" attacking a Bundist May Day demonstration in 1937. (Erected by the City Committee of the Bund.)

Bund

#B-117

1936 
Warsaw 
 
Young men with banners at a joint May Day demonstration organized by the Jewish Socialist Bund and Poalei-Zion Left (a Labor Zionist party).

 

Bund

#B-118

May 1, 1937 
Warsaw 
 
Men stand at attention with banners during a speech by Y. Goldberg at a May Day demonstration organized by the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-119

1936 
Warsaw 
photo by: Bornstein 

Men and women with banners at a joint May Day demonstration organized by the Jewish Socialist Bund and Poalei-Zion Left (a Labor Zionist party).

Bund

#B-120

Warsaw 
 
Studio portrait of Henryk Erlich (1882-1941), a leader of the Jewish Socialist Bund, a city councilman, and member of the board of the Warsaw Kehilla (Jewish community council).

Bund

#B-121

Warsaw 
 
Vignetted studio portrait of Jewish Socialist Bund leader Victor Alter as a high school student.

Bund

#B-122

Warsaw 
 
Studio portrait of Dr. Ludwik Honigwill (1887-1977), lawyer, defender of political cases, vice chairman of the Socialist Lawyers Association in Poland, and a leader of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-123

pub. 1925 
Warsaw 
 
A May Day parade of the Jewish Socialist Bund headed by Henryk Erlich and Wiktor Alter.

Bund

#B-124

Warsaw 
Ars 
Postcard portrait of "Yanek," Yoysef Yankelevitsh (1887-1920), an activist in the Jewish Socialist Bund and the printers' union.

Bund

#B-125

Warsaw 
photo by: Mapjanfuks 

Studio prtrait of members of the Jewish Socialist Bund: (right to left) Noyekh (Yekutiel) Portnoy, Felicja Abarbanel, Irenka Goldberg-Kshevitska, and Yerakhmiel Vaynshteyn.

Bund

#B-126

December 14, 1937 
Warsaw 
 
Group portrait of delegates from Galicia to the 40th Anniversary Convention of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-127

December, 1937 
Warsaw 
 
Portrait of the delegation from Czestochowa at the 40th Anniversary Convention of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-128

1937 
Warsaw 
 
Warsaw newspaper distributors pose at a banquet at the 40th Anniversary Convention of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-129

1930s 
Warsaw 
 
A Jewish Socialist Bund delegation from Amszczonow at the funeral of Josef Leszczynski (Chmurner), a Bundist leader: men and women with wreaths posing in front of the Pol printing shop, which advertises the printing of posters and leaflets.

Bund

#B-130

1930s 
Warsaw 
photo by: Bornstein 

Procession at the funeral of Josef Leszczynski (Chmurner), a leader of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-131

1931 
Warsaw 
 
Delegates from Pruzana pose with a banner at the Nationwide Convention of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-132

1931 
Warsaw 
 
Delegates from Wegrow, Grodno, and other cities march with banners in a parade at the Nationwide Convention of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-133

1931 
Warsaw 
 
Girls in an outdoor athletic performance at the Nationwide Convention of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-134

1936 
Warsaw 
 
Young men and women pose at banquet of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-135

1937 
Warsaw 
 
A group of members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund, pose at the Warsaw Zoo.

Bund

#B-136

July-August, 1927 
Warsaw 
 
Studio portrait of Leib Berman (seated, center), "a well-known member" of the Jewish Socialist Bund, with other carpentry instructors in Jewish trade schools, in Warsaw for qualifying courses.

Bund

#B-137

pub. 1925 
Warsaw 
 
Participants of the 2nd Yiddish School Convention at the City Hall: Y. Lev, Y. Rozen, S. Rozenberg, Arn Shenitski, Arn Wahl, Arthur Shmuel Zygelboim. (Yiddish note) "The Left Poalei Zion took up the whole left side; the right side was taken by the Bund."

Bund

#B-138

Vilna 
photo by: Grossman, Moryc 

The house in which the Jewish Socialist Bund was founded in 1897.

Bund

#B-139

1923-1924 
Vilna 
photo by: Brudner, B. 

Studio portrait of the Vilna Committee of the Jewish Socialist Bund: (1st row, r-l) Israel Okun, M. Litwak, Anna Rosental, J. Zoleznikow; (2nd row) L. Wajnsztajn, Rebecca Epsztajn, chairman Grisha Abelowicz, Aronowicz.

Bund

#B-140

1919 
Vilnius 
 
The body of Arn Wajter (Ajzik Mayer Dejweniszki), active member of the Jewish Socialist Bund and once imprisoned in Siberia. Wajter was shot by a Polish soldier during the 1919 pogroms.

Bund

#B-141

ca. 1935 
Vilnius 
photo by: Grossman, Moryc 

The tombstone of Arn Wajter (Ajzik Mayer Dejweniszki), a Jewish Socialist Bund activist who was killed by a Polish soldier during the pogroms of 1919. (His tombstone is a statue of the Polish eagle.)

Bund

#B-142

1935 
Vilna 
 
Abraham Morewski speaking at the tomb of Arn Wajter (Ajzik Mayer Dejweniszki), a Jewish Socialist Bund activist who was killed by a Polish soldier during the 1919 pogroms. (His tombstone is a statue of the Polish eagle.)

Bund

#B-143

1934 
Vilna 
photo by: Szer 
Group portrait of members of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund) assembled for a banquet with Wirgily Kahan and Zeleznikov (seated near front in center).

Bund

#B-144

1933 
Vilna 
 
The YIVO exhibit on Jewish social movements: the section on the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-145

1933 
Vilna 
 
The YIVO exhibit on Jewish social movements: the section on the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-146

Before WWI 
Vilna 
 
Studio portrait of actor Chaim Schneur ( Hamerow) (standing, right), later a member of the Vilna Troupe, with a group of friends, members of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-147

1922 
Wloclawek 
 
Studio portrait of an unidentified group of children and adults, perhaps associated with the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-148

1920's 
Wloclawek 
photo by: Shtan 

Studio portrait of members of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-149

1933 
Wloclawek 
photo by: Bernardi 

Montage of portraits of members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-150

August 15, 1927 
Brok 
photo by: Neyman, Y. 

Formal group portrait in the woods: unidentified members of Tsukunft (Jewish Socialist Bund youth movement).

Bund

#B-151

1930s 
Zamosc 
phopto by: Ginsburg, M. 

Members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund, posing with the black-shrouded portrait of a dead comrade and a banner reading, "Long live the `Yugnt Bund Zukunft'."

Bund

#B-152

1931 
Zaromb 
 
Group portrait of members of Yugnt, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-153

1930s 
Zdunska Wola 
 
A funeral procession for an unidentified member of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-0154

July 28, 1928 
Zdunska Wola 
 
Group portrait of participants in the "4th Outing" of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-155

Zelechow 
 
Outdoor portrait of members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-156

After 1923 
Poland 
 
A memorial for Bundist leader Vladimir Medem, with the banner of the Jewish Socialist Bund and a picture of Medem.

Bund

#B-157

1927 
Poland 
 
Heavily retouched portrait of G. Sibert, journalist, member of the Jewish Socialist Bund, and chairman of the emigration office of the national council of the clothing workers' union.

Bund

#B-158

1931 
Vienna 
 
The Bund delegation to the Socialist International: (sitting l-r) Y. Likhtenshteyn, H. Erlich, A. Rosental, Noyekh, A. Zelmanovitsh, Kh. Peskin; (2nd row) G. Zibert, V. Alter, Kh. Pizhits (?), E. Sherer; (3rd row) Sh. Hertz, E. Novogrodski, M. Ozhekh.

Bund

#B-159

1920s-30s 
Poland 
 
On an outing: members of Tsukunft and Morgnshtern (youth movements of the Jewish Socialist Bund) posing together on a walk.

Bund

#B-160

On an outing: members of Tsukunft and Morgnshtern (youth organizations of the Jewish Socialist Bund) posing together on a walk.

Bund

#B-161

ca. 1935 
Carpathia 
 
Members of Tsukunft (the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund) sitting together along the side of a wooden building, at a summer camp in the mountains, "at the time of the famous flood."

Bund

#B-162

ca. 1935 
Carpathia 
 
"The household committee" cutting vegetables in a clearing in the woods at a summer camp in the mountains for members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-163

ca. 1935 
Carpathia 
 
Teenagers posing in front of a fence, at a summer camp in the mountains for members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-164

ca. 1935 
Carpathia 
 
Teenagers resting on a hillside, while on an outing at a summer camp for members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-165

ca. 1935 
Carpathia 
 
"At our field kitchens" in the woods, at a summer camp in the mountains for members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-166

ca. 1935 
Carpathia 
 
Rows of campers doing calisthenics "on the gymnastics field" at a summer camp in the mountains for members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-167

c. 1935 
Carpathia 
 
Campers posing together by their tents at a summer camp in the mountains for members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund.

Bund

#B-168

May 22-23, 1931 
Poland 
 
Members of Tsukunft, the youth movement of the Jewish Socialist Bund, in uniform, posing together on the grass at a summer camp with the movement's red flag.

Bund

#B-169

ca. 1930s 
Poland 
 
Pola Kirszencwajg, Khayke Belchatowska, Miriam Szyfman and two other young women, some or all of whom were associated with the Jewish Socialist Bund, posing together in a rye field.

Bund

#B-170

1934 
Poland 
 
On a sailing trip from Warsaw to Gdynia: members of Morgnshtern (the sports organization of the Jewish Socialist Bund) posing on the ship's mast.

Bund

#B-171

1934 
Poland 
 
On a sailing trip from Warsaw to Gdynia: members of Morgnshtern (the sports organization of the Jewish Socialist Bund) posing for a group portrait with the crew on the boat at the pier.

Bund

#B-172

1930 
Miedzeszyn 
 
A group of children playing a ring toss game indoors, at the Medem Sanatorium, run by the Jewish Socialist Bund. (From an album.)

Bund

#B-173

1930 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Youngsters grouped around their teacher Yoysef Katz, outdoors at the Medem Sanatorium, run by the Jewish Socialist Bund. In the group are Sholem Rosenberg (seated, right) and Yosl (Joseph) Mlotek (left, with glasses). (From an album.)

Bund

#B-174

1930 
Michalin 
 
Children on a swing on the grounds of the Medem Sanatorium, run by the Jewish Socialist Bund. (From an album.)

Bund

#B-175

1930 
Michalin 
 
A group of boys playing croquet, on the grounds of the Medem Sanatorium, run by the Jewish Socialist Bund. (From an album.)

Bund

#B-176

1930 
Michalin 
 
Two girls playing a toss game together, on the grounds of the Medem Sanatorium, run by the Jewish Socialist Bund. (From an album.)

Bund

#B-177

1930 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Children playing in a playground at the Medem Sanatorium, run by the Jewish Socialist Bund. (From an album.)

Bund

#B-178

1930 
Michalin 
 
A group of children playing a bowling game on the grounds of the Medem Sanatorium, run by the Jewish Socialist Bund. (From an album.)

Bund

#B-179

1930 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Children digging in a sand pit with shovels and wheelbarrows, on the grounds of the Medem Sanatorium, run by the Jewish Socialist Bund. (From an album.)

Bund

#B-180

1930 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Children grouped around their teacher Manye Yerukhamzon, serving tea, outdoors at the Medem Sanatorium, run by the Jewish Socialist Bund. (From an album.)

Bund

#B-181

1930 
Michalin 
 
Teacher Guta Segalowicz-Kac with a child at the Medem Sanatorium, run by the Jewish Socialist Bund. (From an album.)

Bund

#B-182

1922 
Poland 
 
"For the 25th anniversary of the Bund. 1897-1922. Founders and leaders of the Bund": cover of an album of portraits of Jewish Socialist Bund activists.

Bund

#B-183

Arkadi Kremer, one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922).

Bund

#B-184

Isaiah (Vitaly)Eisenstadt, one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922).

Bund

#B-185

Noah Portnoy, one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922).

Bund

#B-186

A. Litvak (Khaim Helfand), one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922.)

Bund

#B-187

Mark Liber, one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922).

Bund

#B-188

Yosef Izbitski, one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922).

Bund

#B-189

Vladimir Kosovsky (Nakhum Levinson), one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922).

Bund

#B-190

Bronislaw Groser, one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922).

Bund

#B-191

Vladimir Medem, one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922).

Bund

#B-192

P. Arman (Dr. Pavel Rozental), one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922).

Bund

#B-193

Sore Fuks, one of the leaders and founders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922.)

Bund

#B-194

Raphael Abramovitch, one of the leaders and founders of the Jewish Socialist Bund (whose portraits were included by the Vilna Committee of the Bund in an album honoring the party's 25th anniversary in 1922.)

Bund

#B-195

12/28/90-1/8/90 
Warsaw 
 
A display on the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund at the second exhibition of CYSHO (Central Yiddish School Association). (From an album published by CYSHO.)

Bund

#B-196

1929 
Michalin 
 
View of the entrance to the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund, with an inset of Vladimir Medem. (Issued as a postcard as part of a series for the 2nd national exhibition of CYSHO [Central Yiddish School Organization].)

Bund

#B-197

1930 
Miedzeszyn 
 
The clinic at the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund. (Issued as a postcard as part of a series for the 2nd national exhibition of CYSHO [Central Yiddish School Organization].)

Bund

#B-198

1930 
Miedzeszyn 
 
Children sunning and resting on chaises at the "rest pavilion" of the "new building" at the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund. (Issued as a postcard in a series for the 2nd national exhibition of CYSHO [Central Yiddish School Organization].)

Bund

#B-199

1929 
Miedzeszyn 
 
The "old building" at the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund. (Issued as a postcard as part of a series for the 2nd national exhibition of CYSHO [Central Yiddish School Organization].)

Bund

#B-200

1930 
Michalin 
 
At a meal in the dining room of the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund. (Issued as a postcard as part of a series for the 2nd national exhibition of CYSHO [Central Yiddish School Organization].)

Bund

#B-201

1930 
Michalin 
 
Children around the librarian's table in the library of the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund. (Issued as a postcard as part of a series for the 2nd national exhibition of CYSHO [Central Yiddish School Organization].)

Bund

#B-202

1929 
Miedzeszyn 
 
A vote at a meeting of the children's council of the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund. (Issued as a postcard as part of a series for the 2nd national exhibition of CYSHO [Central Yiddish School Organization].)

Bund

#B-203

1930 
Miedzeszyn 
 
In the washroom at the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund: three boys and a girl, by the sinks and at a cubby. (Issued as a postcard as part of a series for the 2nd national exhibition of CYSHO [Central Yiddish School Organization].)

Bund

#B-204

1930 
Michalin 
 
"Out in the open": a group of young boys and girls, dressed for sun-bathing, posing on the grass with teacher Sheyne Pat and another teacher at the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund. (Part of a CYSHO postcard series.)

Bund

#B-205

1930 
Miedzeszyn 
 
"At work in the garden" of the Medem Sanatorium of the Jewish Socialist Bund. (Issued as a postcard as part of a series for the 2nd national exhibition of CYSHO [Central Yiddish School Organization].)

Bund

#B-206

1920's 
Kiev 
photo by: Pashker, M. Z. 

Students (five women and a man) at their jobs in a "shoe-making workshop named after [Jewish Socialist Bund leader] Lekert" (in Yiddish).

Bund

#B-207

1920's 
Kiev 
Pashker, M. Z. 
Students pose making harnesses in a "workshop at the school named after [Jewish Socialist Bund leader] H. Lekert" (in Yiddish).

Bund

#B-208

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: A Jewish Adolescent Girl, Seated
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 452
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: A Jewish Adolescent Girl, Seated Drawing made in the Drancy camp, Jan. 9, 1943 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and ...

Bund

#B-209

A microfilm reel smuggled by the Jewish underground out of Warsaw to London on 24 May 1944
Catalog No.: 1175
Type of Item: Artifact
Databank: Artifacts Section
Description: 1. A microfilm reel smuggled by the Jewish underground out of Warszawa (Warsaw) to London on 24 May 1944 2. A cardboard cylinder box used to carry the microfilm reel. On 24 May 1944, Jewish National Committee (ZKN - Zydowski Komitet Narodowy) activists and Bund men in Warsaw, working ...

Bund

#B-210

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Boy, Holding a Dish of Food
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1238
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Boy, Holding a Dish of Food Painting made in the Drancy camp. Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva ...

Bund

#B-211

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Woman, Seated, Holding a Book
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1223
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Woman, Seated, Holding a Book Painting made in the Drancy camp, Nov. 30, 1942 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there ...

Bund

#B-212

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Man Wearing a Beret
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1222
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Man Wearing a Beret Painting made in the Drancy camp, Dec. 9, 1942 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva ...

Bund

#B-213

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Boy with a Doll, in Bed
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1218
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Boy with a Doll, in Bed Painting made in the Drancy camp, Dec. 31, 1942 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in ...

Bund

#B-214

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Jew, Seated, with a Yellow Badge
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1219
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Jew, Seated, with a Yellow Badge Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva (Geneve) during the years 1908 ...

Bund

#B-215

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Portrait of Young Woman with a Headscarf
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1221
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Portrait of Young Woman with a Headscarf Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva (Geneve) during the years 1908 ...

Bund

#B-216

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Jew Wearing a Skullcap
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1227
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Jew Wearing a Skullcap Painting made in the Drancy camp, Jan. 10, 1943 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in ...

Bund

#B-217

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Woman Seated Beside a Table
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1226
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Woman Seated Beside a Table Painting made in the Drancy camp, Dec. 17, 1942 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and ...

Bund

#B-218

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Teenaged Girl, Standing
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1225
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Teenaged Girl, Standing Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva (Geneve) during the years 1908 - 1909. In 1910 ...

Bund

#B-219

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Man in an Overcoat, Standing
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1224
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Man in an Overcoat, Standing Painting made in the Drancy camp, Dec. 17, 1942 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there ...

Bund

#B-220

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Woman behind a Table with a Box of Books
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1220
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Woman behind a Table with a Box of Books Painting made in the Drancy camp, Dec. 30, 1942 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied ...

Bund

#B-221

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Man Wearing a Beret
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1231
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Man Wearing a Beret Painting made in the Drancy camp, Nov. 20, 1942 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva ...

Bund

#B-222

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Jew with a Yellow Badge
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1229
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Jew with a Yellow Badge Painting made in the Drancy camp, Feb. 1, 1943 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in ...

Bund

#B-223

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Jew with a Yellow Badge
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1228
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Jew with a Yellow Badge Painting made in the Drancy camp, Nov. 30, 1942 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and ...

Bund

#B-224

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Woman with a Green Ribbon in her Hair
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1233
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Woman with a Green Ribbon in her Hair Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva (Geneve) during the years ...

Bund

#B-225

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Jew Wearing a Yellow Badge, Seated with a Book on his Knees
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1235
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Jew Wearing a Yellow Badge, Seated with a Book on his Knees Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva (Geneve) ...

Bund

#B-226

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Portrait of a Seated Man, his Head Resting on his Hand
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1230
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Portrait of a Seated Man, his Head Resting on his Hand Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva (Geneve) during ...

Bund

#B-227

Aizik - Adolphe Feder, Self - Portrait with Yellow Badge.
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1271
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Self - Portrait with Yellow Badge. Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva (Geneve) during the years 1908 - 1909. ...

Bund

#B-228

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Boy Wearing a Yellow Badge, Holding a Metal Can
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1236
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Boy Wearing a Yellow Badge, Holding a Metal Can Painting made in the Drancy camp, Dec. 26, 1942 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied ...

Bund

#B-229

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Woman at a Table
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1237
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Young Woman at a Table Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva (Geneve) during the years 1908 - 1909. In 1910 ...

Bund

#B-230

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Internee
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1239
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Internee Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied art there and in Geneva (Geneve) during the years 1908 - 1909. In 1910 he went ...

Bund

#B-231

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Jew Wearing a Yellow Badge, with a Book on his Knees
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1232
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Seated Jew Wearing a Yellow Badge, with a Book on his Knees Painting made in the Drancy camp, Dec. 16, 1942 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. ...

Bund

#B-232

Wladka (Miedzyrzecki - Meed, formerly Feygl Peltel): Forged "Aryan" ID card
Catalog No.: 473
Databank: Collections Section
Type of Item: Archive - file
Wladka (Miedzyrzecki - Meed, formerly Feygl Peltel): her forged "Aryan" ID card, issued to Stanislawa Wenchleska. Also in the file: transcript of Bar Mitzvah speech by Shlomo Meed, Wladka's son; 15 Feb. 1964; eight pages, typewritten original, in Yiddish Note: Wladka, a native of Warsaw, was a member ...

Bund

#B-233

Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Boy with a Yellow Badge, Seated at a Laid Table
Type of Item: Artwork
Catalog No.: 1234
Databank: Art Collection
Aizik - Adolphe Feder: Boy with a Yellow Badge, Seated at a Laid Table Painting made in the Drancy camp, Dec. 24, 1942 Aizik - Adolphe Feder was born on July 16, 1887, to a Jewish mercantile family in Odessa. In 1905, he joined the Bund. Persecuted for his activities, he fled to Berlin. He studied ...

Bund

#B-234

Hirsch Wasser, photographed upon the discovery of part of the hidden Oneg Shabbat archive in Warsaw on Sept. 18, 1942.
Catalog No.: 497
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Hirsch Wasser, photographed upon the discovery of part of the buried "Oneg Shabbat" archives in Warsaw on September 18, 1942. Standing next to him is Rachel Auerbach. Note: Hirsch Wasser, born in 1912 in Suwalki, Poland, was a member of the Po'alei Zion - Left party and secretary of the clandestine ...

Bund

#B-235

Nine members of the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 962
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Nine members of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. In the photo: Oskar Hendler (standing, right), Chaim Frimer (seated, right), Masza Bagner - Fischer (seated, second from the right), Pnina Grinshpan - Frimer (seated, third from the right), Irena Gelblum ...

Bund

#B-236

Three members of the Jewish underground in Warsaw in 1963.
Catalog No.: 974
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Three members of the Jewish underground in Warsaw (Warszawa) in 1963. In the photo: Marek Edelman, Feygl Peltel - Miedzyrzecka (now Wladka Meed, on the right) and Chana Fryszdorf - Krisztal. The three were members of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization.

Bund

#B-237

The ruins of the bunker at the end of Mila Street, at the corner of Smocza Street in Warsaw.
Catalog No.: 975
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
The ruins of the bunker at the end of Mila Street, at the corner of Smocza Street in Warsaw (Warszawa). This was the location of the Jewish Fighting Organization squad under the command of Wolf Rozowski of the Bund.

Bund

#B-238

The ruins of the bunker at the end of Mila Street, at the corner of Smocza Street in Warsaw.
Catalog No.: 976
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
The ruins of the bunker at the end of Mila Street, at the corner of Smocza Street in Warsaw (Warszawa). This was the location of the Jewish Fighting Organization squad under the command of Wolf Rozowski of the Bund.

Bund

#B-239

A group of veterans of the Jewish Fighting Organization who joined up with the partisans.
Catalog No.: 982
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
A group of veterans of the Jewish Fighting Organization who joined up with the partisans. Photographed in Nowy Dwor in 1944. In the photo: Jakov Bilek (on the right), Gabriel Fryszdorf (second from the right), Chana Fryszdorf (third from the right), Yurek Kiriat Sefer (fourth from the right), Yakov ...

Bund

#B-240

Maurycy Orzech, a member of the Bund Central Committee and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1015
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Maurycy Orzech, a member of the Bund Central Committee and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: When war broke out , he escaped to Latvia and from there tried to reach Sweden by a sea route, but the ship was stopped by the Germans and he was returned to Poland. Orzech participated ...

Bund

#B-241

Maurycy Orzech, a member of the Bund Central Committee and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1016
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Maurycy Orzech, a member of the Bund Central Committee and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. For details about him, see Photo No. 1015.

Bund

#B-242

Zygmunt Igla, native of Poland, member of the Bund and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1020
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Zygmunt Igla, native of Poland, member of the Bund and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: During the ghetto uprising in April 1943, Igla fought under the command of Wolf Rozowski. Igla was among those who escaped from the ghetto via the sewers to join with the partisans ...

Bund

#B-243

Jakov Bilek ("Janek"), member of the Bund and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1051
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Jakov Bilek ("Janek"), member of the Bund and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Photographed in 1944. Note: Bilek participated in the Warsaw ghetto uprising in April 1943, fighting in the Brushmakers' Area and afterwards in the Central Ghetto. With the suppression of the uprising, ...

Bund

#B-244

Marek Edelman, among the leaders of the Bund and a commander in the Warsaw ghetto uprising.
Catalog No.: 1059
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Marek Edelman, among the leaders of the Bund and a commander in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto uprising. Notes: 1) Edelman was born in Warsaw in 1926. As a teenager, he joined Tsukunft, the Bund's youth movement, and became a member in the party's central institutions. In November 1942 he joined the ...

Bund

#B-245

Marek Edelman, among the leaders of the Bund and a commander in the Warsaw ghetto uprising.
Catalog No.: 1060
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Marek Edelman, among the leaders of the Bund and a commander in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto uprising. Photographed in his home in Lodz in 1981. For details about him, see Photo No. 1059. Note: Information about him can be found on "The Partisans Site" Web site of the Ghetto Fighters' House ( www.partisans.org.il ...

Bund

#B-246

Jurek Blones, member of the Bund and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1069
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Jurek Blones, member of the Bund and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Blones was born in Warsaw in 1924. He was 15 years old at the outbreak of WWII, but despite his youth, he undertook underground missions of smuggling weapons into the ghetto. During the Warsaw ghetto ...

Bund

#B-247

Avraham Blum, "Abrasza", member of the Bund Central Committee and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1070
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Avraham Blum, "Abrasza", member of the Bund Central Committee and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Blum was born in Vilnius (Vilna). In 1929 he moved to Warsaw, and from movement activities he soon became part of the party leadership. He was active in the Warsaw ...

Bund

#B-248

Certificate for his activities fighting Nazis awarded posthumously to Avraham Blum (Abrasha), member of the Bund central committee and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1071
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Certificate for his activities fighting Nazis awarded posthumously to Avraham Blum (Abrasha), member of the Bund central committee and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. This is for the Gruenwald Cross, Third Class. Blum also was awarded the Virtuti Militari, Fifth Class, ...

Bund

#B-249

Jakub Glattsztajn, a musician, voice teacher and conductor of the Bund's Tsukunft youth movement's children's choir during the German occupation.
Catalog No.: 1103
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Jakub Glattsztajn, a musician, voice teacher and conductor of the Bund's Tsukunft youth movement's children's choir during the German occupation. He took part in cultural activities in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto and organized choral groups of refugee children. He composed the melody to Itzhak Katznelson's ...

Bund

#B-250

Leib - Levi Gruzalc, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1107
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Leib - Levi Gruzalc, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Gruzalc was born in Warsaw. From an early age, he belonged to the Bund's Tsukunft youth movement. During the German occupation, he was active in finding safe houses for orphans and ...

Bund

#B-251

A portrait of Leib - Levi Gruzalc, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1108
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
A portrait of Leib - Levi Gruzalc, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. For details about him, see Photo No. 1107.

Bund

#B-252

Isra'el Grilek, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1110
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Isra'el Grilek, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Grilek was born in Warsaw in 1910. During the Warsaw ghetto uprising in April 1943, he and his family were in the supply bunker at 30 Franciszkanska Street. After the bunker was destroyed, ...

Bund

#B-253

Tova Dawidowic, member of the Bund and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1116
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Tova Dawidowic, member of the Bund and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Tova Dawidowic was born in Warsaw on May 21, 1924. In February 1943, she took part with nine fighters of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in a raid to expropriate money from the Judenrat bank ...

Bund

#B-254

David Hochberg, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1119
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
David Hochberg, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: David Hochberg was born in 1925. During the Warsaw ghetto uprising in April 1943, he commanded one of the combat squads of the Bund. On April 27, 1943, he and his fighters were in the big ...

Bund

#B-255

Jakow - Ya'akov Wiernik, a participant in the uprising in the Treblinka extermination camp.
Catalog No.: 1146
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Jakow - Ya ' akov Wiernik, a participant in the uprising in the Treblinka extermination camp. Photographed in August 1943. Biographic notes: Jakow - Jankiel Wiernik was born in 1887 in the Brisk district, now Brest, Belarus. In 1904 he was among the defenders in the Jewish Labor Bundmovement. ...

Bund

#B-256

Shmuel - Artur Zygelbojm, a leader of the Bund in Poland.
Catalog No.: 1149
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Shmuel - Mordechai Artur Zygelbojm, a leader of the Bund in Poland. Note: Zygelbojm was born in 1893. In March 1942, he went from Warsaw (Warszawa) to London and joined the second Polish National Council of the Polish government - in - exile there. On May 12, 1943, he committed suicide at the gate ...

Bund

#B-257

Adam - Adek Jankelewic, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1167
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Adam - Adek Jankelewic, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Jankelewic was born in Warsaw. During the Warsaw ghetto uprising of April 1943, he fought in a Bund combat squad. On suppression of the uprising, he and his comrades escaped the ...

Bund

#B-258

Shimon Malinowski, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1194
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Shimon Malinowski, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Malinowski was born in Lodz in 1910. He was deported to the Trawniki camp, where he commanded an underground cell and organized a workshop for repairing weapons. He perished in ...

Bund

#B-259

Wladka and Benjamin Miedzyrzecki - Meed, members of the Bund and the Jewish underground in Warsaw.
Catalog No.: 1201
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Wladka and Benjamin Miedzyrzecki - Meed, members of the Bund and the Jewish underground in Warsaw (Warszawa). Photographed in Lodz in January 1945. For details about Wladka Meed (Feygl Peltel), see Photo No. 1265. Note: Wladka and Benjamin Meed survived the Holocaust, and live today in the United ...

Bund

#B-260

Sonia Nowogrodski - Czemelynski, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1210
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Sonia Nowogrodski - Czemelynski, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: During the Great Aktion (mass deportations) in the Warsaw ghetto, on August 13, 1942 she was sent to the Majdanek extermination camp, where she perished.

Bund

#B-261

Chancza Papier and Chana Frysdorf, members of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1227
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Chancza Papier and Chana Frysdorf, members of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Photographed in 1941. Notes: Chana Frysdorf fought in the Warsaw ghetto uprising in April 1943. On the suppression of the uprising, she and her husband Gabriel went ...

Bund

#B-262

Renia Pizszic, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1245
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Renia Pizszic, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Renia Pizszic was born in Warsaw in October 1901. She fell in the Warsaw ghetto uprising on May 10, 1943, in the air - raid shelter of the hospital where she worked, at 6 Gesia Stre ...

Bund

#B-263

Avraham Feiner, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1247
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Avraham Feiner, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Avraham Feiner was born in Warsaw in 1915. Before the war he served on the Warsaw committee of the Bund's youth movement, Tsukunft. At the outbreak of WWII he fought in the Polish army, ...

Bund

#B-264

Dr. Leon Feiner, a key activist of the Bund and a leader in the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1248
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Dr. Leon Feiner, a key activist of the Bund and a leader in the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Leon Feiner (known in the underground by the names "Mikolaj" and "Barzowski") was born in Krakow in 1886. He was chairman of the Bund's Central Committee. He ...

Bund

#B-265

Salo - Henryk Fiszgrund, member of the Bund and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1252
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Salo - Henryk Fiszgrund, member of the Bund and the Jewish underground in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Fiszgrund was born in the city of Selo. He was a member of the underground's Coordination Committee in Warsaw. Among his various activities, he was the head of a secret cell for rescuing ...

Bund

#B-266

Wladka Miedzyrzecki - Meed (Feygl Peltel), member of the Bund and a courier for the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1265
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Wladka Miedzyrzecki - Meed (Feygl Peltel), member of the Bund and a courier for the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Wladka Meed was born in Warsaw; her name was originally Feygl Peltel. Her "Aryan" appearance and fluent knowledge of Polish allowed her to ...

Bund

#B-267

The false "Aryan" identity document of Feygl Peltel (Wladka Miedzryzecki - Meed), member of the Bundand a courier for the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1266
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
The false "Aryan" identity document of Feygl Peltel (Wladka Miedzryzecki - Meed), member of the Bund and a courier for the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. The document was issued on Nov. 27, 1943. See details about her in Photo No. 1265.

Bund

#B-268

The parents of Feygl Peltel (Wladka Miedzyrzecki - Meed), member of the Bund and a courier for the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1268
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
The parents of Feygl Peltel (Wladka Miedzyrzecki - Meed), member of the Bund and a courier for the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. For details about her see Photo No. 1265.

Bund

#B-269

Zalman - Zygmunt Friedrich, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1277
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Zalman - Zygmunt Friedrich, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Photographed on July 1, 1937. Note: Friedrich was born in Warsaw in 1911. With the outbreak of WWII he was drafted into the Polish army, fought the Germans and fell prisoner. ...

Bund

#B-270

Michael Kleppfisch, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1283
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Michael Kleppfisch, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Michael Kleppfisch was born in Warsaw. An airplane mechanic by profession and with technical skills, he worked on producing weapons in an underground workshop. He also dealt with ...

Bund

#B-271

Menachem Kirschenbaum, a leader of the General Zionists, public activist and member of the Jewish underground in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1299
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Menachem Kirschenbaum, a leader of the General Zionists, community activist and member of the Jewish underground in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Kirschenbaum was born in Lublin. He was one of the founders of Tekumah (Hebrew: Revival; the organization for promoting the Hebrew language) together ...

Bund

#B-272

Wolf - Welwel Rozowski, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1313
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Wolf - Welwel Rozowski, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Wolf Rozowski was born in 1916, evidently in Stolbtsy. During the Warsaw ghetto uprising of April 1943 he commanded a combat squad that fought in the Toebbens - Schultz area. ...

Bund

#B-273

Wolf - Welwel Rozowski, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1314
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Wolf - Welwel Rozowski, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. See details about him in Photo No. 1313.

Bund

#B-274

Adina Schweiger - Baldi, code name "Inka," member of the Jewish underground in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1324
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Adina Schweiger - Baldi, code name "Inka," member of the Jewish underground in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Photographed in 1934 on receiving her high school diploma. Note: Inka Schweiger was born in Warsaw in 1917. She worked as a physician in the ghetto hospital, and was a courier for the Bund ...

Bund

#B-275

Adina Schweiger - Baldi, member of the Jewish underground in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1325
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Adina Schweiger - Baldi, member of the Jewish underground in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Photographed with her daughter, born at the end of the war. For details about Adina "Inka" Schweiger, see Photo No. 1324.

Bund

#B-276

Leah Szifman, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1326
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Leah Szifman, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Leah Szifman was born in Warsaw in 1922. During the Warsaw ghetto uprising in April 1943, she fought in the combat squad commanded by Leib Gruzalc. On April 24, 1943, the air - raid ...

Bund

#B-277

Miriam Szifman, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1327
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Miriam Szifman, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Miriam Szifman was born in Warsaw in 1916. She belonged to Tsukunft, the Bund's youth movement, and after the outbreak of WWII served as head of the party's Warsaw branch. She would ...

Bund

#B-278

Avraham - Shmuel "Berek" Schneidemil, Bund activist and member of the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1336
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Avraham - Shmuel "Berek" Schneidemil, Bund activist and member of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Berek Schneidemil was born in Lodz in 1903. At an early age he moved to Warsaw and joined Tsukunft, the Bund's youth movement. With the outbreak of WWII ...

Bund

#B-279

The building at No. 24 Miodowa Street on the "Aryan" side of Warsaw.
Catalog No.: 1351
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
The building at No.24 Miodowa Street on the "Aryan" side of Warsaw (Warszawa). Bund activist Bracha - Bronka Feinmesser of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) rented an apartment here to serve as a hideout for fighters who escaped from the ghetto. See: Rotem, Simcha (Kazik), "Memoirs of a Warsaw ...

Bund

#B-280

The building at No. 2 Barokowa Street on the "Aryan" side of Warsaw.
Catalog No.: 1357
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
The building at No. 2 Barokowa Street on the "Aryan" side of Warsaw (Warszawa). In this building was an apartment which served as a hiding place for Jews, rented by , a courier - liaison for the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw ghetto. The fighters Zalman Friedrich and Simcha Rathajzer ...

Bund

#B-281

The building at No. 41 or No. 43 Promyka Street on the "Aryan" side of Warsaw, whose cellar was a hideout for ZOB fighters after the Polish uprising of 1944.
Catalog No.: 1358
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
The building at No. 41 or No. 43 Promyka Street on the "Aryan" side of Warsaw (Warszawa), whose cellar was a hideout for Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) fighters after the Polish uprising of 1944. Note: Some members of the Jewish Fighting Organization who had survived after the suppression of the ...

Bund

#B-282

A view of Chlodna Street in Warsaw.
Catalog No.: 1360
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
A view of Chlodna Street in Warsaw (Warszawa). Note: During the war, the Bundist and Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) member David Klin had a clandestine apartment at No. 17 Chlodna Street. After underground activities spread out in the ghetto, Klin moved to the "Aryan" side of the city, where ...

Bund

#B-283

Leib Karsh, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization in the Warsaw ghetto.
Catalog No.: 1853
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Photo Archive
Leib Karsh, member of the Bund and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) in the Warsaw (Warszawa) ghetto. Note: Karsh was born in Goworowo. During the Warsaw ghetto uprising he was in the shelter at 30 Franciszkanska Street. He fell at the hospital at 6 Gesia Street.

  #B-284
The Bundists
Bundists

#BT-001

1905 
Vilna 
 
Studio portrait: "A group of young [Jewish Socialist] Bundists from Lodz... standing 2nd from right is Yankev Dovid Berg... now president of the Sholem Aleichem Institute in N. Y. Seated, 2nd from left is his brother Avrom" ('Forward' spread, 1937).

Bundists

#BT-002

1905 
Liepaja 
 
Outdoor portrait of a group of young Jewish Socialist Bundists, some holding copies of the 'Folkstsaytung' (People's News). (From a 'Jewish Daily Forward' spread, 1937: "Jewish Revolutionaries Of The Past.")

Bundists

#BT-003

1906 
Siberia 
 
Group portrait in front of a log building: "[Unidentified] Jewish revolutionaries of the past. A rare picture of a group of [Jewish Socialist] Bundists... Some of them were quite prominent in the movement at that time." ('Jewish Daily Forward', 1937.)

Bundists

#BT-004

1906 
Kanetap 
 
Studio portrait of young men and women: "A group of [Jewish Socialist] Bundists... Sitting 2nd from right is H. Jacobson, now in Philadelphia." (Yiddish caption. From a photo essay in the "Forward," 1929: "Revolutionary Workers Of The Past.")

Bundists

#BT-005

1905 
Berdichev 
 
Studio portrait: "A group of Bundists from Brisk, Bialystok, Dvinsk, and other cities... (The youth in the center is Avreml Bialystoker.)" (Caption from a photo essay in the "Jewish Daily Forward," 1929: "Revolutionary Workers Of The Past.")

Bundists

#BT-006

1903 
Pinsk 
Ilivicki & W. 
Studio portrait of H. Silverman (standing, right), M. Weitzman and three other young Jewish Socialist Bundists.

Bundists

#BT-007

1905 
Eastern Europe 
 
Studio portrait in Cossack-style fur hats: "A group of Social-Democrats and [Jewish Socialist] Bundists who were exiled to Siberia... Some are from Bialystok, some from Pinsk, and one is from Sieradz..." ('Forward' photo essay on revolutionaries, 1931).

Bundists

#BT-008

1905 
Rovno 
 
"Bundists of 20 years ago. Interesting Russian-Jewish types of the [Jewish Socialist] Bund... Second from right [standing] is D. Shier, our 'Forward' representative in Minneapolis." ("Jewish Daily Forward" Yiddish caption.)

Bundists

#BT-009

1904 
Vilna 
 
Studio portrait of "Vilna [Jewish Socialist] Bundists. These Vilna tailors were active in the revolutionary movement..." ('Jewish Daily Forward' caption in English.)

Bundists

#BT-010

pub. Sept. 19, 1926 
Russia 
 
"Some of the heroic men and women who risked their lives fighting Tsarism." "[Jewish Socialist] Bundists of yesteryear... They are now in America and are members of the Socialist 'Farband' [Union]. (2nd row, left is member Asher)." ("Forward.")

Bundists

#BT-011

1904 
Vitebsk 
 
Studio portrait of a group of [Jewish Socialist] Bundists, young men and women. (Part of a photo essay in the 'Jewish Daily Forward', 1927: "Bundist Men And Women Of The Past.")

Bundists

#BT-012

1904 
Ostrow 
 
Studio portrait of [Jewish Socialist] Bundists.

Bundists

#BT-013

1903 
Mogilev 
 
A group of (Jewish Socialist) Bundists, five young men posing for a studio portrait, each with a hand on another's shoulder. (Part of a photo essay in the 'Jewish Daily Forward', 1928: "Jewish Revolutionary Groups Of The Past.")

Bundists

#BT-014

1904 
Daugavpils 
 
Six young men: "United by one ideal". Studio portrait of a group of (Jewish Socialist) Bundists. (Part of a photo essay in the 'Jewish Daily Forward', 1928: "Revolutionaries Of The Past.")

Bundists

#BT-015

1905 
Lublin 
 
Studio portrait of six well-dressed men, "a group of [Jewish Socialist] Bundists". (Part of a 'Jewish Daily Forward' photo essay, 1932: "Jewish Revolutionaries Of The Past... Submitted By Our Readers.")

Bundists

#BT-016

1906 
Mogilev 
 
Studio portrait: "United by one ideal. A group of active [Jewish Socialist] Bundists..." "Submitted by Yerakhmiel Gurevits, one of the group, now living in Wooster, Massachusetts." ('Forward' photo essay, 1933: "Jewish Revolutionaries Of The Past...")

Bundists

#BT-017

1904 
Pinsk 
 
Studio portrait: "Pinsk [Jewish Socialist] Bundists... 2 of them now in Chicago and members of the Pinsker Branch 252 Workmen's Circle. They are Joe Kaplan (front row, 2nd from right) and Charlie Siegel (left)." (From a 'Forward' photo essay, 1933.)

Bundists

#BT-018

1904 
Liozno 
 
Studio portrait: "'Alter the shoemaker', 'Avreml the shoemaker', H. Landishman, and M. Slevin -- [Jewish Socialist] Bundists... Slevin (the first from right) is now located in New York." (From a 'Forward' spread, 1933: "Jewish Revolutionaries...")

Bundists

#BT-019

1906 
Gorkiy 
 
Studio portrait of "active [Jewish Socialist] Bundists..." (Part of a 'Jewish Daily Forward' photo spread, 1933: "Jewish Revolutionaries Of The Past.")

Bundists

#BT-020

1913 
Bialystok 
 
Labor Zionists, Jewish Socialist Bundists, Polish Socialist Party members. (Front, r-l): Tsalkov, Halpern, Polonski, Rafalovski, Shpiner; (back) Dovidovitsh, Pitkovski, Pripshteyn, Kushner, Melovitski, Bapkes. ('Forward': "Jewish Revolutionaries...")

Bundists

#BT-021

1910 
Vilna 
 
Studio portrait: "A group of men and woman Bundists... Also in the group are several members of the PPS [Polish Socialist Party]." (From a 'Jewish Daily Forward' spread, 1934: "Jewish Revolutionaries Of The Past -- Submitted By Our Readers.")

Bundists

#BT-022

1904 
Vitebsk 
 
Studio portrait of a group of young men, (hands on each other's shoulders): "...Vitebsker [Jewish Socialist] Bundists... This picture was sent in by Mrs. M. Rotrik, of the Bronx." (From a "Forward' spread, 1934: "Jewish Revolutionaries Of The Past.")

Bundists

#BT-023

pub. Sept. 23, 1934 
Druskininkay 
 
"A group of prominent [Jewish Socialist] Bundists at a get-together in... a health resort... In the back row are Henryk Erlich (right) and Vladimir Kossovsky [Kosovsky] (left). In the middle row is Arkadi Kremer (2nd from right)." ("Forward" Yiddish caption.)

Bundists

#BT-024

1920 
Stopnica 
 
Formal portrait on a field: "A group of [Jewish Socialist] Bundists, young men and women, on a picnic... Many of them are now live in America." (From a "Forward' photo spread, 1935: "Jewish Revolutionaries Of The Past -- Submitted By Our Readers.")

Bundists

#BT-025

pub. April 26, 1936 
Vilna 
 
On 'Zavalne' Street: "Arrested for participating in the strike. ...2 [Jewish Socialist] Bundists... being led to the police station." ('Forward' spread: "Jewish Streets Of Vilna During The Recent Protest Strike Against Persecutions Of Jews In Poland.")

Bundists #BT-026
Bundists

#BT-027

1905 
Siauliai 
 
Studio portrait of "a group of men and women [Jewish Socialist] Bundists... The girl standing center is now Mrs. Minnie Rogowsky, of Brooklyn. In the old country she called herself Mikhlye -- Mikhlye Kesl." ('Forward' spread on revolutionaries, 1936.)

Bundists

#BT-028

Early 1900's 
Kaunas 
 
Studio portrait: "Young men and women [Jewish Socialist] Bundists... The woman on the left, center row [under X] then went by the name of Esther Kaplan (her maiden name), now Mrs. Lipoy of the Bronx." ('Forward' spread on revolutionaries, 1936.)

Bundists

#BT-029

1904 
Bobruisk 
 
Portrait of Bundists: (seated, l to r) Beni Lazinski, Nakhke Yokheved, Brokhe Ginzburg, Noyekh Kazanovitsh, Tsirl Yabrov, Artshe Harelikh; (standing) Nekhome-Sore Kazanovitsh, Avrom Kurzhniki, Yazhe Ginzburg, Elye Grayfer, Hirsh Yokheved, Ida Harelikh.

Bundists

#BT-030

1920 
Telsiai 
 
Outdoor group portrait of men and women (some of them [Jewish Socialist] Bundists), and (l) a child: (center, with pnce-nez) teacher Sheve Raivits; (to her left) teacher Rivke Yafe. "A group of intellectuals..." (written in Yiddish).
 

 

#BT-031

1904 
Daugavpils 
 
Studio portrait of a group of [Jewish Socialist] Bundists, young women, all wearing the same style dress, some holding literature. (Part of a photo essay in the 'Jewish Daily Forward', 1927: "Bundist Men And Women Of The Past.")

HeHalutz or Hechalutz (lit. The Pioneer) was a Jewish youth movement that trained young people for agricultural settlement in the Land of Israel. It became an umbrella organization of the pioneering Zionist youth movements.
History
HeHalutz was founded by Eliezer Joffe in America in 1905, and about the same time in Russia.[1]
During World War I, HeHalutz branches opened across Europe (including Russia), America and Canada. Leaders of the organization included Yitzhak Ben-Zvi (later the second president of the State of Israel), and David Ben-Gurion (later the first Prime Minister of Israel) in America, and Joseph Trumpeldor in Russia.
Ben-Gurion was living in Jerusalem at the start of the First World War, where he and Ben Zvi recruited forty Jews into a Jewish militia to assist the Ottoman army. Despite this, he was deported to Egypt in March 1915. From there he made his way to the United States, where he remained for three years. On his arrival, he and Ben Zvi went on a tour of 35 cities in an attempt to raise a Hechalutz "pioneer army" of 10,000 men to fight on Turkey's side.[2] After the Balfour Declaration of November 1917, the situation changed dramatically and Ben-Gurion, with the interest of Zionism in mind, switched sides and joined the newly formed Jewish Legion of the British Army, leaving to fight the Turks in Palestine.
At its peak, between 1930 and 1935, HeHalutz operated in 25 countries throughout Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and Northern South America. In 1932-1934, Golda Meir, later the prime minister of Israel, was the secretary of the women's chapter of HeHalutz in the United States.[3]
In 1932, the organization established headquarters in New York and twenty branches in cities and towns throughout the United States and Canada. Farms were then established to train members for agricultural work in Palestine. Such farms operated in Creamridge, New Jersey, Heightstown, New Jersey, Poughkeepsie, New York, Smithville, Ontario., and Colton, California.[4]
In 1933, after Jews were expelled from the workforce in Nazi Germany, HeHalutz farms became the primary framework for vocational training and preparation for emigration.[5]
By the eve of Second World War in 1939, HeHalutz numbered 100,000 members worldwide, with approximately 60,000 having already emigrated (aliyah) to Mandate Palestine, and with 16,000 members in training centers (hakhsharot) for the pioneering life in the Land of Israel.[6] During the war and German occupation, Jews in some ghettos in Europe established Hechalutz units, as in Lithuania's Šiauliai Ghetto.[7] By the 1950's HeHalutz"... was absorbed by Hashomer Hatzair, which had always maintained a large degree of autonomy. Nominally, however, the He-?alutz Organization of America still exists...."[8]
References
1 ^ Ritov, Israel; Slutsky, Yehuda (2007). "He-?alutz". In Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 8 (2 ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 756–761.
2 ^ Teveth, Shabtai (1985) Ben-Gurion and the Palestinian Arabs. From Peace to War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503562-3. pp. 25, 26.
3 ^ Golda Meir
4 ^ Jewish Virtual Library: HeHalutz
5 ^ Before Catastrophe: The Distinctive Path of German Zionism, Hagit Lavsky
6 ^ Resistance in the Smaller Ghettos of Eastern Europe United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
7 ^ "The Shavli Ghetto". Association of Lithuanian Jews in Israel. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
8 ^ Jewish Virtual Library: HeHalutz

HeHalutz

#H-001

1932 
Ciechanow 
 
Members of Hehalutz Hatzair (Young Pioneer), a Zionist youth group, pose in a garden.

HeHalutz

#H-002

1933 
Ciechanow 
 
Studio portrait of members of Hehalutz Hatzair (Young Pioneer), a Zionist youth group.

HeHalutz

#H-003

Czestochowa 
 
Portrait of members of the Hehalutz Hamizrachi farm, an agricultural training farm for a religious Zionist organization.

HeHalutz

#H-004

1920 
Grayevo 
 
Members of Hehalutz (Pioneer), a pioneering Zionist youth movement, pose at work planting trees.

HeHalutz

#H-005

1920 
Grayevo 
 
Members of Hehalutz (Pioneer), a pioneering Zionist youth movement, pose for a portrait in order of size.

HeHalutz

#H-006

1920 
Grodno 
 
Members of the Hehalutz agricultural group (Hebrew name on banner) at a meal by a field. A portrait of Theodor Herzl rests on a hoe leaning on a gate made of two wooden Stars of David. The sign above reads in Polish and Yiddish "No Thoroughfare."

HeHalutz

#H-007

1920 
Grodno 
 
Members of the Hehalutz agricultural group (Hebrew name on banner) posing in a field.

HeHalutz

#H-008

1920 
Grodno 
 
Members of the Hehalutz agricultural group (Hebrew name on banner) posing at work in a field.

HeHalutz

#H-009

1920s-30s 
Lvov 
 
On the Jewicz farm in the Sygniowka suburb, used as a training farm by the Hehalutz (Pioneer) Zionist youth movement: young man working a horse-drawn plow.

HeHalutz

#H-010

1920s-30s 
Lvov 
 
At the Jewicz farm in the Sygniowka suburb, used as a training farm by the Hehalutz (Pioneer) Zionist youth movement: two men with horses at work in a field.

HeHalutz

#H-011

Lvov 
 
A view of the Jewicz farm in the Sygniowka suburb, used as a training farm by the Hehalutz (Pioneer) Zionist youth movement. (Left) a building entitled "House of Friendship."

HeHalutz

#H-012

Lvov 
 
At the Jewicz farm in the Sygniowka suburb, used as a training farm by the Hehalutz (Pioneer) Zionist youth movement: young people carrying window sashes by the greenhouses.

HeHalutz

#H-013

Lvov 
 
Interior of the greenhouse at the Jewicz farm in the Sygniowka suburb, used as a training farm by the Hehalutz (Pioneer) Zionist youth movement.

HeHalutz

#H-014

1919 
Mlawa 
 
Studio portrait of members of Hehalutz Hatzair, a Zionist youth group, with a portrait of Vladimir (Ze'ev)Jabotinsky.

HeHalutz

#H-015

1919 and 1925 
Mlawa 
 
Members of the Zionist Hehalutz Hatzair.

HeHalutz

#H-016

August 15, 1925 
Mlawa 
 
Studio portrait of members of the Zionist Hehalutz Hatzair (Young Pioneer) work group.

HeHalutz

#H-017

After 1848 
Stanislawow 
 
Postcard: Dr. Isaac Erter (1791-1851), a satiric writer of the Jewish Enlightenment and editor of 'HeHalutz' (The Pioneer). The harp, the feather pen, inkwell and the weighty tomes were symbols conventionally used on postcards featuring writers.

HeHalutz

#H-018

1923 
Daugavpils 
 
Group portrait of members of the Zeirei Zion and Hehalutz Zionist youth organizations: young men and women (some wearing ribbons) with a Hebrew-Yiddish poster in front of a portrait of Herzl. (2nd row, seated, 2nd from left) Moshe Amir-Bliakh.

Hechalutz
Hechalutz

#H-019

The concluding ceremony of a joint seminar of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir and Freiheit youth movements, held in The concluding ceremony of a joint seminar of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir and Freiheit youth movements, held in Warsaw.
Catalog No.: 37
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
The concluding session of a joint seminar of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir and Freiheit youth movements, held in Warsaw (Warszawa). Photographed in January 1931.

Hechalutz

#H-020

The concluding session of a joint seminar of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir and Freiheit youth movements, held in Warsaw.
Catalog No.: 49
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
The concluding session of a joint seminar of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir and Freiheit youth movements, held in Warsaw (Warszawa). Photographed in 1931.

Hechalutz

#H-021

A summer camp of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in Zelenaya (Zielona).
Catalog No.: 153
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A summer camp of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in Zelenaya (Zielona). Among the participants: the emissary from Palestine, Pinchas Rashish. Photographed on July 30, 1933.

Hechalutz

#H-022

A training program for older members of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement, held in Horodlec.
Catalog No.: 157
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
The senior members at a camp session of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement, held in Horodlec [spelling of place name unconfirmed]. Photographed on June 11, 1936.

Hechalutz

#H-023

A summer camp of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in the Bialystok region.
Catalog No.: 158
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A summer camp of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in the Bialystok region. Photographed between the two world wars.

Hechalutz

#H-024

Activists of the He - Chaluts organization central and the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in Warsaw.
Catalog No.: 306
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Activists of the He - Chaluts organization central and the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in Warsaw (Warszawa). In the photo: Fania Bergstein (bottom row, second from the left) and Pinchas Lander - Elad (top row, second from the left). Photographed in 1927 or 1928.

Hechalutz

#H-025

Activists of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in Lutsk in 1936.
Catalog No.: 327
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Activists of the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in Lutsk in 1936. In the photo: Berger (on the right), Sheinda'leh (surname unknown, center), and Zalman (surname unknown, left).

Hechalutz

#H-026

Yakov Naumark, representative of the Freiheit youth movement on the He - Chaluts movement's Central Committee in Lvov, with three youth counselors from the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement branch in Mielec.
Catalog No.: 344
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Yakov Naumark, representative of the Freiheit youth movement on the He - Chaluts movement's Central Committee in Lvov, with three youth counselors from the He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement branch in Mielec. Photographed in 1933.

Hechalutz

#H-027

The combined committee of the He - Chaluts organization and He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in Pruzhany.
Catalog No.: 399
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
The combined committee of the He - Chaluts organization and He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in Pruzhany.

Hechalutz

#H-028

Members of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts and the youth movement He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir in Krasnystaw
Catalog No.: 451
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Members of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts and the youth movement He - Chaluts ha - Tsa'ir in Krasnystaw. Photographed in 1932 or 1933.

Hechalutz

#H-029

Members of the He - Chaluts association of youth movements and the Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in Vileyka, prior to the emigration to Palestine of members of the "Ha - Sansanim" group.
Catalog No.: 706
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Members of the He - Chaluts association of youth movements and the Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir youth movement in Vileyka, prior to the emigration to Palestine of members of the "Ha - Sansanim" group. Photographed in 1933.

Hechalutz

#H-030

A national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin.
Catalog No.: 718
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin. Photographed in September 1938. Note: This course was jointly organized by the national leadership of the Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir youth movement and the He - Chaluts organization central's department ...

Hechalutz

#H-031

A national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin.
Catalog No.: 719
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin. Photographed in September 1938. Note: This course was jointly organized by the national leadership of the Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir youth movement and the He - Chaluts organization central's department ...

Hechalutz

#H-032

A national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin.
Catalog No.: 720
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin. Photographed in September 1938. Note: This course was jointly organized by the national leadership of the Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir youth movement and the He - Chaluts organization central's department ...

Hechalutz

#H-033

A national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin.
Catalog No.: 721
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin. Photographed in September 1938. Note: This course was jointly organized by the national leadership of the Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir youth movement and the He - Chaluts organization central's department ...

Hechalutz

#H-034

Movement members and counselors in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin.
Catalog No.: 722
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Movement members and counselors in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin. Photographed in September 1938. Note: This course was jointly organized by the national leadership of the Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir youth movement and the He - Chaluts ...

Hechalutz

#H-035

Movement members participating in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin.
Catalog No.: 723
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Movement members participating in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin. Photographed in September 1938. Note: This course was jointly organized by the national leadership of the Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir youth movement and the He - Chaluts ...

Hechalutz

#H-036

Movement members participating in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin.
Catalog No.: 724
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Movement members participating in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin. Photographed in September 1938. Note: This course was jointly organized by the national leadership of the Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir youth movement and the He - Chaluts ...

Hechalutz

#H-037

Participants in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin.
Catalog No.: 725
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin. In the photo: Shabtai (full name unknown) and Menashe Amali. Photographed in September 1938. Note: This course was jointly organized by the national leadership of the Ha - Shomer ...

Hechalutz

#H-038

Participants in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin.
Catalog No.: 726
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin. In the photo: Shabtai (full name unknown) and Menashe Amali. Photographed in September 1938. Note: This course was jointly organized by the national leadership of the Ha - Shomer ..

Hechalutz

#H-039

Participants in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin.
Catalog No.: 727
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin. In the photo: Shabtai (full name unknown) and Menashe Amali. Photographed in September 1938. Note: This course was jointly organized by the national leadership of the Ha - Shomer ...

Hechalutz

#H-040

Participants in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin.
Catalog No.: 728
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a national - level Ha - Shomer ha - Tsa'ir course in defense and military skills, held in Mikulichin. In the photo: Shabtai (full name unknown) and Menashe Amali. Photographed in September 1938. Note: This course was jointly organized by the national leadership of the Ha - Shomer ...

Hechalutz

#H-041

Members of the Freiheit youth movement at a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in Jozefow.
Catalog No.: 850
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Members of the Freiheit youth movement at a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in Jozefow. In the photo: Zivia Lubetkin (standing sixth from the left). Photographed in 1935.

Hechalutz

#H-042

A group of members of the He - Chaluts organization and the Freiheit youth movement in Baranowice.
Catalog No.: 938
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A group of members of the He - Chaluts organization and the Freiheit youth movement in Baranowice. Photographed on November 1, 1931.

Hechalutz

#H-043

A group of members of the He - Chaluts organization and the Freiheit youth movement in Baranowice.
Catalog No.: 939
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A group of members of the He - Chaluts organization and the Freiheit youth movement in Baranowice. Photographed in 1930.

Hechalutz

#H-044

A group of members of the He - Chaluts organization and the Freiheit youth movement in Baranowice.
Catalog No.: 940
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A group of members of the He - Chaluts organization and the Freiheit youth movement in Baranowice. Photographed in 1928.

Hechalutz

#H-045

A group of members of the He - Chaluts organization and the Freiheit youth movement in Baranowice.
Catalog No.: 941
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A group of members of the He - Chaluts organization and the Freiheit youth movement in Baranowice. Photographed in 1929.

Hechalutz

#H-046

A group of members of the He - Chaluts organization and the Freiheit youth movement in Baranowice.
Catalog No.: 942
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A group of members of the He - Chaluts organization and the Freiheit youth movement in Baranowice. Photographed in 1930.

Hechalutz

#H-047

A combined meeting of the steering committees of the Freiheit youth movement and the He - Chaluts organization in Czyzow.
Catalog No.: 1093
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A combined meeting of the steering committees of the Freiheit youth movement and the He - Chaluts organization in Czyzow. Photographed on February 3, 1934.

Hechalutz

#H-048

A combined meeting of the steering committees of the Freiheit and Po'alei Zion movements and the He - Chaluts organization in Czyzow.
Catalog No.: 1094
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A combined meeting of the steering committees of the Freiheit and Po'alei Zion movements and the He - Chaluts organization in Czyzow. A map of Palestine is displayed on the table and on the wall behind the participants, portraits of Karl Marx and Dov - Ber Borochov. Photographed on September 8, 19 ...

Hechalutz

#H-049

A meeting of members of the He - Chaluts and Freiheit youth movements in Krakow.
Catalog No.: 1449
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A meeting of members of the He - Chaluts and Freiheit youth movements in Krakow. Present at this meeting, which took place in 1933, was the emissary from Palestine Meir Grabowski.

Hechalutz

#H-050

A seminar of the He - Chaluts organization for members in the Volhynia district.
Catalog No.: 1499
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A seminar of the He - Chaluts organization for members in the Volhynia district. The seminar was held in Nowostaw. Photographed on September 1, 1934.

Hechalutz

#H-051

A seminar of the He - Chaluts organization for members in the Bialystok district.
Catalog No.: 1500
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A seminar of the He - Chaluts organization for members in the Bialystok district. The seminar was held in Ignatki. Photographed on April 4, 1935.

Hechalutz

#H-052

Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization held in Jozefow in November 1934.
Catalog No.: 1501
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization held in Jozefow in November 1934.

Hechalutz

#H-053

Participants in the third seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in the Polesye district.
Catalog No.: 1502
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in the third seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in the Polesye district. The seminar was held in Baranowice. Photographed on February 1, 1936. Note: The photograph comes from the estate of Chaim "Lolek" Hadari, a Zionist emis

Hechalutz

#H-054

Three participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization held in Jozefow.
Catalog No.: 1503
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Three participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization held in Jozefow. Photographed on November 25, 1934.

Hechalutz

#H-055

Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization held in Jozefow in 1935.
Catalog No.: 1504
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization held in Jozefow in 1935.

Hechalutz

#H-056

Participants in a world seminar of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts held in Wola, near Warsaw, in 1938.
Catalog No.: 1505
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a world seminar of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts held in Wola, near Warsaw (Warszawa), in 1938. Rachel Katnelson - Shazar was among the visitors to the seminar. In the photo: Yitzhak Tabenkin (third row from the top, third from the left).

Hechalutz

#H-057

Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in Poland, held near Lodz.
Catalog No.: 1506
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in Poland, held near Lodz. The location was a building called "Villa Roma (Rome)." Photographed on January 26, 1936.

Hechalutz

#H-058

Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in Poland, held in January 1936.
Catalog No.: 1507
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in Poland, held in January 1936. Note: The seminar was evidently held in Jodlowa.

Hechalutz

#H-059

Participants in an underground seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in Vilnius (Vilna).
Catalog No.: 1508
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in an underground seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in Vilnius (Vilna). The seminar was held during the Soviet occupation, in 1940.

Hechalutz

#H-060

Members of a pioneering training commune of the He - Chaluts organization in Jedrzejow.
Catalog No.: 1509
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Members of a pioneering training commune (kibbutz hachshara) of the He - Chaluts organization in Jedrzejow. In the photo: Zivia Lubetkin (standing third from the right). Photographed in 1935. Note: The hachshara in Jedrzejow belonged to the "Borochov" bloc.

Hechalutz

#H-061

Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in Poland, held in 1930.
Catalog No.: 1510
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in Poland, held in 1930. The placard in the rear center of the photo has portraits of Joseph - Hayyim Brenner and Joseph Trumpeldor.

Hechalutz

#H-062

Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization held in Grochow in 1933.
Catalog No.: 1511
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization held in Grochow in 1933.

Hechalutz

#H-063

A group of participants in a seminar of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts held in Warsaw in 1930.
Catalog No.: 1512
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A group of participants in a seminar of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts held in Warsaw (Warszawa) in 1930.

Hechalutz

#H-064

Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in the Volhynia district.
Catalog No.: 1513
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in the Volhynia district. In the photo: Zvi Mersik (bottom row, seated third from the left). The seminar was held on November 13, 1936.

Hechalutz

#H-065

Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in December 1938.
Catalog No.: 1514
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts organization in December 1938. It took place at the "Shachariya" kibbutz (commune) in Vileyka. The seminar leader was Josef Braslawski. In the photo: Shulamit Amitay, Sara Sokoler, Chana Zilbercwajg, Mordechai Tenenbaum - Tamaroff, Sarah Furman, Shimon ...

Hechalutz

#H-066

The concluding festivities of a world seminar of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts.
Catalog No.: 1515
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants at the concluding festivities of a world seminar of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts. The seminar took place in Warsaw (Warszawa). The celebration was held on January 5, 1931.

Hechalutz

#H-067

Participants in a regional seminar of the He - Chaluts movement in Poland.
Catalog No.: 1516
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a regional seminar of the He - Chaluts movement in Poland. The seminar was held in Nowostaw. Zivia Lubetkin was among the participants. Photographed on August 23, 1934.

Hechalutz

#H-068

Moshe Braslawski, a Zionist emissary from Kibbutz Beit Alfa in Mandate Palestine, at a world seminar of He - Chaluts in Warsaw
Catalog No.: 1517
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Moshe Braslawski, an emissary from Kibbutz Beit Alfa in Mandate Palestine, at a world seminar of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts held in Warsaw (Warszawa). Photographed in September 1930.

Hechalutz

#H-069

Participants in the third national seminar of the He - Chaluts movement in Poland.
Catalog No.: 1518
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in the third national seminar of the He - Chaluts movement in Poland. The seminar was held in Grochow in May - June 1933. In the photo: a poster on the wall (in Yiddish) reads: Long Live Liberty.

Hechalutz

#H-070

The third national seminar for members of youth movements operating in the framework of the He - Chaluts movement in Poland.
Catalog No.: 1519
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
The third national seminar for members of youth movements operating in the framework of the He - Chaluts movement in Poland. The seminar took place in Jozefow. In the photo: Shlomo Tzam, Nachum Bielski, Zippora Schuster, Avraham Gewelber, Yoske Cohen, Zalman Avigdori, Shmuel Bruder, Zivia Lubetkin, ...

Hechalutz

#H-071

A national seminar for members of the He - Chaluts movement, held in Jozefow.
Catalog No.: 1520
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A national seminar for members of the He - Chaluts movement, held in Jozefow. In the photo: David and Chana Barash, who emigrated to Palestine before the seminar. Photographed on January 18, 1935.

Hechalutz

#H-072

Members of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts who organized its seminar that was held in Warsaw in 1938.
Catalog No.: 1521
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Members of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts who organized its seminar that was held in Warsaw (Warszawa) in 1938. In the photo: Shmuel - Mulka Baranchuk (on the right), Avraham Tarshish (center) and Yehoshua Wenger (on the left).

Hechalutz

#H-073

Members of the He - Chaluts movement at a movement seminar held in Poland in 1928.
Catalog No.: 1522
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Members of the He - Chaluts movement at a movement seminar held in Poland in 1928. The seminar took place at the Kajanka pioneering training center (hachshara). Seminar leaders included Zionist emissaries from Mandate Palestine: Nachum Ben Ari, Ch

Hechalutz

#H-074

Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts movement in Poland in 1936.
Catalog No.: 1523
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts movement in Poland in 1936.

Hechalutz

#H-075

Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts movement.
Catalog No.: 1524
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts movement. The seminar was held near Lodz, in a place called Arlamowek. Photographed on April 1, 1936.

Hechalutz

#H-076

Five participants in a seminar of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts held in Warsaw in 1938.
Catalog No.: 1525
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Five participants in a seminar of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts held in Warsaw (Warszawa) in 1938. In the photo: Mordechai Tenenbaum - Tamaroff (on the right).

Hechalutz

#H-077

A summer camp of the He - Chaluts movement held in Orlow.
Catalog No.: 1526
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A summer camp of the He - Chaluts movement held in Orlow. The camp took place between May 29 and June 7, 1936.

Hechalutz

#H-078

Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts movement held in Pinsk.
Catalog No.: 1527
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a seminar of the He - Chaluts movement held in Pinsk. This seminar was held between February 1 and March 1, 1935.

Hechalutz

#H-079

A meeting of members of the He - Chaluts movement from the movement divisions in Myszkow and Zarki.
Catalog No.: 1528
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A meeting of members of the He - Chaluts movement from the movement divisions in Myszkow and Zarki. Photographed on October 5, 1935.

Hechalutz

#H-080

A convention of members of the He - Chaluts movement from the Lutsk region.
Catalog No.: 1529
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A convention of members of the He - Chaluts movement from the Lutsk region. The convention was held on September 9 - 10, 1934.

Hechalutz

#H-081

A regional convention of divisions of the He - Chaluts movement from Pinsk, Gorodishche, Janow and Falenica.
Catalog No.: 1530
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A regional convention of divisions of the He - Chaluts movement from Pinsk, Gorodishche, Janow and Falenica. The convention took place between September 22 and 25, 1933. Identified: Cila Gelman.

Hechalutz

#H-082

A convention of pioneering training communes of the He - Chaluts movement in the Brest (Brest Litowsk, Brist) region.
Catalog No.: 1531
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A convention of pioneering training communes (kibbutzei hachshara) of the He - Chaluts movement in the Brest (Brest Litowsk, Brist) region. Photographed on October 20, 1935. Note: The photograph comes from the estate of Chaim "Lolek" Hadari, a

Hechalutz

#H-083

Participants in the regional conference of the Ha - Oved movement's local chapters in the framework of the He - Chaluts movement in Poland.
Catalog No.: 1532
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in the regional conference of the Ha - Oved movement's local chapters in the framework of the He - Chaluts movement in Poland. Note: The Ha - Oved [Hebrew: the worker] movement's members were graduates of the He - Chaluts movement, largely craftsmen and skilled workers who had settled ...

Hechalutz

#H-084

A regional conference of local chapters of the He - Chaluts movement from the Polesye, Grodno and Bialystok districts.
Catalog No.: 1533
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A regional conference of local chapters of the He - Chaluts movement from the Polesye, Grodno and Bialystok districts. This conference was held in Brest (Brest Litowsk; Brisk) in 1924.

Hechalutz

#H-085

A convention of members of the He - Chaluts movement in Lomza.
Catalog No.: 1534
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A convention of members of the He - Chaluts movement in Lomza. The convention was held in 1930 or 1931.

Hechalutz

#H-086

A regional convention of the He - Chaluts movement held in Pinsk.
Catalog No.: 1535
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A regional convention of the He - Chaluts movement held in Pinsk. In the photo: Herschel Pinski and Yitzhak Tabenkin. Photographed in 1930.

Hechalutz

#H-087

Members of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts, attending its convention held in Warsaw in 1935
Catalog No.: 1536
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Members of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts, attending its convention held in Warsaw (Warszawa) in 1935.

Hechalutz

#H-088

A meeting of members of the He - Chaluts movement.
Catalog No.: 1537
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A meeting of members of the He - Chaluts movement. This meeting took place in Korelichi, neaer the elementary school, on July 7, 1929.

Hechalutz

#H-089

Members of the He - Chaluts movement at a convention held in Zielun.
Catalog No.: 1538
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Members of the He - Chaluts movement at a convention held in Zielun. The convention took place on Tisha B'Av, August 3, 1930.

Hechalutz

#H-090

A regional convention for members of the He - Chaluts movement.
Catalog No.: 1539
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A regional convention for members of the He - Chaluts movement. The convention was held in Dubrovitsa on April 21 - 22, 1935.

Hechalutz

#H-091

A convention for members pioneering training communes of the He - Chaluts movement in the Klesov (Klosova) area.
Catalog No.: 1541
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A convention for members pioneering training communes (kibbutzei hachshara) of the He - Chaluts movement in the Klesov (Klosova) area. Participants in the convention came from the cities of Dubrovitsa, Sarny and Rokitnoye (Rokitno). The convention

Hechalutz

#H-092

The second convention on ideology for members of the He - Chaluts movement in the "Northern Bloc" of Poland.
Catalog No.: 1542
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
The second convention on ideology for members of the He - Chaluts movement in the "Northern Bloc" of Poland. Two emissaries from Palestine participated in the convention: Czerna Friedman and one named Zvik. The convention was held in Plock on March 8 - 9, 1935.

Hechalutz

#H-093

A march of members of the He - Chaluts movement in Krakow on International Youth Day, May 21, 1934.
Catalog No.: 1540
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A march of members of the He - Chaluts movement in Krakow on International Youth Day, May 21, 1934.

Hechalutz

#H-094

Participants in a congress of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts held in Warsaw
Catalog No.: 1543
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Participants in a congress of the Zionist organization He - Chaluts held in Warsaw (Warszawa). The congress was held on July 27 - 30, 1921.

Hechalutz

#H-095

Members of the He - Chaluts movement in Baranowice at a festive convention marking a decade of the pioneering training center at Klesov (Klosova).
Catalog No.: 1544
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
Members of the He - Chaluts movement in Baranowice at a festive convention marking a decade of the pioneering training center (hachshara) at Klesov (Klosova). The convention was held at the Jewish New Year, on September 10, 1934.

Hechalutz

#H-096

The speakers' table at the 12th Conference of the He - Chaluts movement in Galicia.
Catalog No.: 1545
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
The speakers' table at the 12th Conference of the He - Chaluts movement in Galicia. This conference was held in Lvov on December 24, 1933.

Hechalutz

#H-097

A convention of members of a pioneering training center of the He - Chaluts movement in Baranowice.
Catalog No.: 1546
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A convention of members of a pioneering training center (hachshara) of the He - Chaluts movement in Baranowice. The convention was held during Passover.

Hechalutz

#H-098

A convention in Bedzin of members of the He - Chaluts movement.
Catalog No.: 1547
Type of Item: Photo
Databank: Youth Movements Photos
A convention in Bedzin of members of the He - Chaluts movement. The convention was held in 1936.

   
   
   
   
   
 

Origin Of  Some Jewish Last Names

BENNETT MURASKIN, SLATE
JAN. 8, 2014, 3:35 PM 

Ashkenazic Jews were among the last Europeans to take family names. Some German-speaking Jews took last names as early as the 17th century, but the overwhelming majority of Jews lived in Eastern Europe and did not take last names until compelled to do so. The process began in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1787 and ended in Czarist Russia in 1844.
In attempting to build modern nation-states, the authorities insisted that Jews take last names so that they could be taxed, drafted, and educated (in that order of importance). For centuries, Jewish communal leaders were responsible for collecting taxes from the Jewish population on behalf of the government, and in some cases were responsible for filling draft quotas. Education was traditionally an internal Jewish affair.
Until this period, Jewish names generally changed with every generation. For example, if Moses son of Mendel (Moyshe ben Mendel) married Sarah daughter of Rebecca (Sara bat rivka), and they had a boy and named it Samuel (Shmuel), the child would be called Shmuel ben Moyshe. If they had a girl and named her Feygele, she would be called Feygele bas Sora.
Jews distrusted the authorities and resisted the new requirement. Although they were forced to take last names, at first they were used only for official purposes. Among themselves, they kept their traditional names. Over time, Jews accepted the new last names, which were essential as Jews sought to advance within the broader society and as the shtetles were transformed or Jews left them for big cities.
The easiest way for Jews to assume an official last name was to adapt the name they already had, making it permanent. This explains the use of "patronymics" and "matronymics."
PATRONYMICS (son of ...)
In Yiddish or German, "son" would be denoted by "son" or "sohn" or "er." In most Slavic languages, like Polish or Russian, it would be "wich" or "witz."
For example: The son of Mendel took the last name Mendelsohn; the son of Abraham became Abramson or Avromovitch; the son of Menashe became Manishewitz; the son of Itzhak became Itskowitz; the son of Berl took the name Berliner; the son of Kesl took the name Kessler, etc.
MATRONYMICS (daughter of …)
Reflecting the prominence of Jewish women in business, some families made last names out of women's first names: Chaiken — son of Chaikeh; Edelman — husband of Edel; Gittelman — husband of Gitl; Glick or Gluck — may derive from Glickl, a popular woman's name as in the famous "Glickl of Hameln," whose memoirs, written around 1690, are an early example of Yiddish literature.
Gold/Goldman/Gulden may derived from Golda; Malkov from Malke; Perlman — husband of Perl; Rivken — may derive from Rivke; Soronsohn—son of Sarah.
PLACE NAMES
The next most common source of Jewish last names is probably places. Jews used the town or region where they lived, or where their families came from, as their last name. As a result, the Germanic origins of most East European Jews is reflected in their names.
For example, Asch is an acronym for the towns of Aisenshtadt or Altshul orAmshterdam. Other place-based Jewish names include: Auerbach/Orbach; Bacharach; Berger (generic for townsman); Berg(man), meaning from a hilly place; Bayer — from Bavaria; Bamberger; Berliner, Berlinsky — from Berlin; Bloch (foreigner); Brandeis; Breslau; Brodsky; Brody; Danziger; Deutch/Deutscher — German; Dorf(man), meaning villager; Eisenberg; Epstein; Florsheim; Frankel — from the Franconia region of Germany; Frankfurter; Ginsberg; Gordon — from Grodno, Lithuania or from the Russian word gorodin, for townsman; Greenberg; Halperin—from Helbronn, Germany; Hammerstein; Heller — from Halle, Germany; Hollander — not from Holland, but from a town in Lithuania settled by the Dutch; Horowitz, Hurwich, Gurevitch — from Horovice in Bohemia; Koenigsberg; Krakauer — from Cracow, Poland; Landau; Lipsky — from Leipzig, Germany; Litwak — from Lithuania; Minsky — from Minsk, Belarus; Mintz—from Mainz, Germany; Oppenheimer; Ostreicher — from Austria; Pinsky — from Pinsk, Belarus; Posner — from Posen, Germany; Prager — from Prague; Rappoport — from Porto, Italy; Rothenberg — from the town of the red fortress in Germany; Shapiro — from Speyer, Germany; Schlesinger — from Silesia, Germany; Steinberg; Unger — from Hungary; Vilner — from Vilna, Poland/Lithuania; Wallach—from Bloch, derived from the Polish word for foreigner; Warshauer/Warshavsky — from Warsaw; Wiener — from Vienna; Weinberg.
OCCUPATIONAL NAMES
Craftsmen/Workers
Ackerman — plowman; Baker/Boker — baker; Blecher — tinsmith; Fleisher/Fleishman/Katzoff/Metger — butcher; Cooperman — coppersmith; Drucker — printer; Einstein — mason; Farber — painter/dyer; Feinstein — jeweler; Fisher — fisherman; Forman — driver/teamster; Garber/Gerber — tanner; Glazer/Glass/Sklar — glazier; Goldstein — goldsmith; Graber — engraver; Kastner — cabinetmaker; Kunstler — artist; Kramer — storekeeper; Miller — miller; Nagler — nailmaker; Plotnick — carpenter; Sandler/Shuster — shoemaker; Schmidt/Kovalsky — blacksmith; Shnitzer — carver; Silverstein — jeweler; Spielman — player (musician?); Stein/Steiner/Stone — jeweler; Wasserman — water carrier.
Merchants
Garfinkel/Garfunkel — diamond dealer; Holzman/Holtz/Waldman — timber dealer; Kaufman — merchant; Rokeach — spice merchant; Salzman — salt merchant; Seid/Seidman—silk merchant; Tabachnik — snuff seller; Tuchman — cloth merchant; Wachsman — wax dealer; Wechsler/Halphan — money changer; Wollman — wool merchant; Zucker/Zuckerman — sugar merchant.
Related to tailoring
Kravitz/Portnoy/Schneider/Snyder — tailor; Nadelman/Nudelman — also tailor, but from "needle"; Sher/Sherman — also tailor, but from "scissors" or "shears"; Presser/Pressman — clothing presser; Futterman/Kirshner/Kushner/Peltz — furrier; Weber — weaver.
Medical
Aptheker — druggist; Feldsher — surgeon; Bader/Teller — barber.
Related to liquor trade
Bronfman/Brand/Brandler/Brenner — distiller; Braverman/Meltzer — brewer; Kabakoff/Krieger/Vigoda — tavern keeper; Geffen — wine merchant; Wine/Weinglass — wine merchant; Weiner — wine maker.
Religious/Communal
Altshul/Althshuler — associated with the old synagogue in Prague; Cantor/Kazan/Singer/Spivack — cantor or song leader in shul; Feder/Federman/Schreiber — scribe; Haver — from haver (court official); Klausner — rabbi for small congregation; Klopman — calls people to morning prayers by knocking on their window shutters; Lehrer/Malamud/Malmud — teacher; Rabin — rabbi (Rabinowitz—son of rabbi); London — scholar, from the Hebrew lamden(misunderstood by immigration inspectors); Reznick — ritual slaughterer; Richter — judge; Sandek — godfather; Schechter/Schachter/Shuchter etc. — ritual slaughterer from Hebrew schochet; Shofer/Sofer/Schaeffer — scribe; Shulman/Skolnick — sexton; Spector — inspector or supervisor of schools.
PERSONAL TRAITS
Alter/Alterman — old; Dreyfus—three legged, perhaps referring to someone who walked with a cane; Erlich — honest; Frum — devout ; Gottleib — God lover, perhaps referring to someone very devout; Geller/Gelber — yellow, perhaps referring to someone with blond hair; Gross/Grossman — big; Gruber — coarse or vulgar; Feifer/Pfeifer — whistler; Fried/Friedman—happy; Hoch/Hochman/Langer/Langerman — tall; Klein/Kleinman — small; Koenig — king, perhaps someone who was chosen as a “Purim King,” in reality a poor wretch; Krauss — curly, as in curly hair; Kurtz/Kurtzman — short; Reich/Reichman — rich; Reisser — giant; Roth/Rothman — red head; Roth/Rothbard — red beard; Shein/Schoen/Schoenman — pretty, handsome; Schwartz/Shwartzman/Charney — black hair or dark complexion; Scharf/Scharfman — sharp, i.e  intelligent; Stark — strong, from the Yiddish shtark ; Springer — lively person, from the Yiddish springen for jump.
INSULTING NAMES
These were sometimes foisted on Jews who discarded them as soon as possible, but a few may remain:
Billig — cheap; Gans — goose; Indyk — goose; Grob — rough/crude; Kalb — cow.
ANIMAL NAMES
It is common among all peoples to take last names from the animal kingdom. Baer/Berman/Beerman/Berkowitz/Beronson — bear; Adler — eagle (may derive from reference to an eagle in Psalm 103:5); Einhorn — unicorn; Falk/Sokol/Sokolovksy — falcon; Fink — finch; Fuchs/Liss — fox; Gelfand/Helfand — camel (technically means elephant but was used for camel too); Hecht—pike; Hirschhorn — deer antlers; Karp — carp; Loeb — lion; Ochs— ox; Strauss — ostrich (or bouquet of flowers); Wachtel — quail.
HEBREW NAMES
Some Jews either held on to or adopted traditional Jewish names from the Bible and Talmud. The big two are Cohen (Cohn, Kohn, Kahan, Kahn, Kaplan) and Levi (Levy, Levine, Levinsky, Levitan, Levenson, Levitt, Lewin, Lewinsky, Lewinson). Others include: Aaron — Aronson, Aronoff; Asher; Benjamin; David — Davis, Davies; Ephraim — Fishl; Emanuel — Mendel; Isaac — Isaacs, Isaacson/Eisner; Jacob — Jacobs, Jacobson, Jacoby; Judah — Idelsohn, Udell,Yudelson; Mayer/Meyer; Menachem — Mann, Mendel; Reuben — Rubin; Samuel — Samuels, Zangwill; Simon — Schimmel; Solomon — Zalman.
HEBREW ACRONYMS
Names based on Hebrew acronyms include: Baron — bar aron (son of Aaron); Beck —bene kedoshim (descendant of martyrs); Getz — gabbai tsedek (righteous synagogue official); Katz — kohen tsedek (righteous priest); Metz — moreh tsedek (teacher of righteousness); Sachs, Saks — zera kodesh shemo (his name descends from martyrs); Segal — se gan levia (second-rank Levite).
OTHER HEBREW- and YIDDISH-DERIVED NAMES
Lieb means "lion" in Yiddish. It is the root of many Ashkenazic last names, including Liebowitz, Lefkowitz, Lebush, and Leon. It is the Yiddish translation of the Hebrew word for lion — aryeh. The lion was the symbol of the tribe of Judah.
Hirsch means "deer" or "stag" in Yiddish. It is the root of many Ashkenazic last names, including Hirschfeld, Hirschbein/Hershkowitz (son of Hirsch), Hertz/Herzl, Cerf, Hart, and Hartman. It is the Yiddish translation of the Hebrew word for gazelle: tsvi. The gazelle was the symbol of the tribe of Naphtali.
Taub means "dove" in Yiddish. It is the root of the Ashkenazic last name Tauber. The symbol of the dove is associated with the prophet Jonah.
Wolf is the root of the Ashkenazic last names Wolfson, Wouk, and Volkovich. The wolf was the symbol of the tribe of Benjamin.
Eckstein — Yiddish for cornerstone, derived from Psalm 118:22.
Good(man) — Yiddish translation of the Hebrew word for "good": tuviah.
Margolin — Hebrew for "pearl."
INVENTED ‘FANCY SHMANCY’ NAMES
When Jews in the Austro-Hungarian Empire were required to assume last names, some chose the nicest ones they could think of and may have been charged a registration fee by the authorities. According to the YIVO Encyclopedia, "The resulting names often are associated with nature and beauty. It is very plausible that the choices were influenced by the general romantic tendencies of German culture at that time." These names include: Applebaum — apple tree; Birnbaum — pear tree; Buchsbaum — box tree; Kestenbaum — chestnut tree; Kirshenbaum — cherry tree; Mandelbaum — almond tree; Nussbaum — nut tree; Tannenbaum — fir tree; Teitelbaum — palm tree.
Other names, chosen or purchased, were combinations with these roots:Blumen (flower), Fein (fine), Gold, Green, Lowen (lion), Rosen (rose), Schoen/Schein (pretty) — combined with berg (hill or mountain), thal (valley), bloom (flower), zweig (wreath), blatt (leaf), vald or wald (woods), feld (field).
Miscellaneous other names included Diamond; Glick/Gluck — luck; Hoffman — hopeful; Fried/Friedman — happiness; Lieber/Lieberman — lover.
Jewish family names from non-Jewish languages included: Sender/Saunders — from Alexander; Kagan — descended from the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking people from Central Asia; Kelman/Kalman — from the Greek name Kalonymous, the Greek translation of the Hebrew shem tov (good name), popular among Jews in medieval France and Italy; Marcus/Marx — from Latin, referring to the pagan god Mars.
Finally, there were Jewish names changed or shortened by immigration inspectors or by immigrants themselves (or their descendants) to sound more American, which is why "Sean Ferguson" was a Jew.
Let us close with a ditty:
And this is good old Boston;
The home of the bean and the cod.
Where the Lowells speak only to the Cabots;
And the Cabots speak Yiddish, by God!
A version of this post originally appeared on Jewish Currents.
Bennett Muraskin is a contributing writer to Jewish Currents magazine and author of The Association of Jewish Libraries Guide to Yiddish Short Stories and Let Justice Well Up Like Water: Progressive Jews from Hillel to Helen Suzman, among other books.

 

Read more: http://www.slate.com/blogs/lexicon_valley/2014/01/08/ashkenazi_names_the_etymology_of_the_most_common_jewish_surnames.html#ixzz3GPosbWNB

Jews of Greater Duluth-Superior Region
http://www.garon.us/DuluthJews.html
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Yizkor books

http://www.gfh.org.il/
"People of 1000 Towns, a Photographic Encyclopedia of Jewish Life in Eastern Europe, 1880-1940,"
JHRG in Belarus
{belshtetl@yahoo.com}
www.bagnowka.com
www.babinets.com/belarus/belarusieza1.html
A Life Apart: Hasidism in America

- Part 1 of 9

 

- Part 2 of 9

 

- Part 3 of 9

 

- Part 4 of 9

 

- Part 5 of 9

 

- Part 6 of 9

 

- Part 7 of 9

 

- Part 8 of 9

 

- Part 9 of 9

 

Jews of russian empire denied permission to go abroad 1916-1917
Foreign passports 1921-1940
 
 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EFD_o0-1QbQ

April 1913; A Zionist movie filmed in Palestina in 1913 -- A PR movie for the 11th Zionist Congress of 1913 in Vienna, over 100 years ago! You see the beginnings of the State of Israel. The amount of work and thought that went into every aspect of Jewish life in the Jewish land, then under the rule of the Ottoman empire.
The video is over an hour long but as you watch you realize that no aspect of Jewish life in Israel has been overlooked. Art, language, construction, agriculture, education – all built upon Jewish values and ideas. When you visit Israel, it’s easy to forget that the national language, the sites, the agriculture, the culture and arts and museums and schools where all built and developed from absolutely nothing.
The rebirth of the Jewish People in its land is no less than a modern day miracle. To think that this video had disappeared and was only found by accident!
It starts in Odesa. 92 people leave Russia for Eretz Israel via Egypt. At .about 4;40 you see Tel Aviv ( neve edek and Gimnasia Herzelia.. At about 6;05 you see a school for Jewish girls in Jaffa.
Around 9;00 you see again Gimnesia Herzelia. Around 12;00 you see Petach Tikvah.Hadera starts at about 15;15.
At about 18;22 we see Zichron Yaakov. Haifa starts at 21; 30 We see the Technion being built. It open a few months later ( April of 1914). We see Kinneret at 23;10 ( Rachel the poet is seen)
Tiberias is seen at 24;20. Migdal is seen at 26;00. Rosh Pina scenes start at 27;50.
29;30 shows the way to  Jerusalem..31; 15 brings us to Jerusalem., Haezera schools for Jewish children in 36;00. Betzalel school for arts 38; 20.. Rachel's tomb on 39;50
40;14 Salomon's pools. Hebron at 40;54 shows mostly the Muslim buildings . Elisha springs is in 42;52.Jerico and the Jordan river 43;20
45;30 Rishon LeZion.48;55 Ness Ziona.51;00 Gedera. Ekron- Mazkeret Batia 52;46.

Passover in Rehovot in 1913 54;35

Jewish Research Tips, Part 1: History and Immigration
 go to https://legacytree.com/blog/jewish-research-tips-part-1-history-and-immigration
Historical Context
A majority of Jewish immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries came primarily from two areas: Germany and a portion of Eastern Europe known as “the Pale.”
The first German Empire was established in 1871. At that time, the kingdom of Prussia and the independent southern German duchies, kingdoms, etc., became united under one government. Jews from these areas immigrated to the United States and other “safe havens” during the early to mid-1800s as persecution drove them from their homes. There were very few of them left in Germany by the late 1800s.

map

A map of united Germany, 1871. Courtesy of http://rootsweb.ancestry.com.
In 1792, Poland was completely wiped off the map due to the ever expanding borders of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Russian Empire. Just inside the Russian border, in the middle of non-existent Poland, was an area called the Jewish “Pale of Settlement.” It was established in 1791 under the rule of Catherine the Great, and continued until the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917.[2] At that time, Poland was reestablished and much of this land was returned to that country.
The Pale was approximately one-fifth of the land in European Russia (west of the Ural Mountains). The present-day countries of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, and parts of western Russia were included in the Pale’s borders.[3]
map
Map of the Jewish Pale of Settlement. Courtesy of http://heathsmith.com.
The Pale was supposedly where the Russian Empire magnanimously allowed their Jewish population to make their homes. In actuality it was the area to which the “less desirable” Jewish population was exiled as a buffer from the other two competing European empires. Jews were not the exclusive residents of this area, but they were not allowed to live outside its borders without special permits, or to live inside most of its cities.
map
Map of regions within the Pale. Courtesy of http://jewishcurrents.org.
As an example, you may recall having watched the musical/movie Fiddler on the Roof. Anatevka was a small, relatively self-sufficient Jewish community or shtetl established just outside of a Russian city in the Pale. This was fairly typical of the political situations and boundaries for the Jewish population. This story of the poverty-stricken Tevye and his family was set in the early 1890s during a wave of anti-Jewish pogroms that led to the expulsion of over 20,000 Jews from Russia.[4]
Finding the Jewish Hometown
The predominant Jewish community in the United States today is from the Ashkenazic Jews of Eastern Europe. Due to their relatively late immigration, it is usually not very difficult to find a record that names their hometown. It is important to keep in mind, though, that when the birth place is found in a record, it may refer to the nearest large city or the region from which they came, just as we tend to do when generalizing our past residences. The maps earlier in this article can help to determine if this was the case since they show the large cities and the regions within the Pale.
A brief review of some records that are most likely to include the name of an immigrant hometown are as follows:
1. Military records
1. Service records from both World Wars – some are online through major repositories like Fold3, and some are available through the National Archives (NARA).
2. Draft registrations for World War I and World War II. These can be found at most major genealogy websites.
2. Naturalization papers
1. If you find a naturalization online at MyHeritage.com, FamilySearch.org or Ancestry.com, browse a couple of pages forward and backward. You may find more than you thought!
2. Post-1906 naturalizations usually included the name of the immigrant hometown and the date and ship on which they arrived in the United States.
3. Post-1922 naturalizations also included female immigrants who were now required to establish citizenship independent of their husband’s. Prior to this date, a woman’s citizenship status changed when her husband’s did.
3. Passenger lists
1. A lot of passenger lists from the 1890s forward include the name of the hometown or the nearest relative back home and their hometown/residence.
2. Remember that passenger lists aren’t always just one page. Browse forward to see if there is a second page with un-indexed information!
4. Social Security Applications (SS-5 forms)
1. It may take several weeks to get one of these records, but they usually give an exact birth date, birth place and the parents’ names. If your immigrant had a Social Security number, it’s worth it to send for this record! Click here for more information on how to obtain it through the Freedom of Information Act.
5. Vital records and Synagogue/Church records
1. Marriage license applications are generally the most informative vital records available, but in some cases birth, marriage and death certificates have been known to include the exact hometown.
2. Synagogue records of naming/circumcision (at 8 days old), marriages and burials are available throughout the United States. Don’t be afraid to call or email the local historical society or a possible synagogue location. They are more than happy to help you trace your Jewish ancestry!
3. If the family converted or a local church served both the Christian and the Jewish communities, the hometown may be recorded in a local parish church’s records of baptisms, marriages and burials.
6. Peripheral family members and friends
1. If you have a hard time finding a record for your immigrant, remember that they usually didn’t come alone. Find another family member who came over and try to locate a record with their hometown named.
7. JewishGen databases – See http://www.jewishgen.org/InfoFiles/.
8. Newspapers and obituaries, family records, town and county histories, cemetery records, etc.
You just have to find the right record. The name of the hometown is out there! Stay tuned for Part II of this article next week…

1946 JDC List of Jewish Residents of Belarus Who Survived WWII
Posted on May 15, 2015by jhrgbelarus
In early 1946, after the end of WWII, the International Red Cross Committee was sent to the Soviet Union to estimate the magnitude of destruction and how to help survivors.
While touring many places around the Soviet Union, the committee stopped in a few towns and shtetls in Belarus.
Among the committee members was the Joint Distribution Committee’s representative, who compiled a list of those who had survived the Holocaust and returned to their pre-war homes. The goal was to send parcels of food and clothing to those people and families.
The list includes more than 80 heads of Jewish households in Belarus, including names, place of residency and, in some cases, the address.
Due to the importance of this information, we are publishing the full list below:

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

1921 – List of Jews from Belarus looking for relatives in America.
Posted on June 30, 2014by jhrgbelarus
In October 1921, a JOINT representative from United States came to Belarus with an inspection of Jewish life, because it was a very difficult time when Jewish institutions tried to survive. When he was meeting and talking to people in various towns and shtetls of Belarus, some of them requested to find their relative in America so they can immigrate there too. Upon return to the US, the representative produced a report of his inspection where he indicated the names and addresses of people in Belarus who were trying to find their US relatives.
Belarus
1922 Minsk – Shoemaker course for Jewish boys financed by JOINT
We are publishing part of this list, which includes Jewish residents of MINSK, SLUTZK, PARICHY, RAKOV, MIR, RUBEZHEVICHY, SAMOKHVALOVICHY and PLESCHINITSY.

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

 

 
 
 
 

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