Schneerson (Schnoerson, Shneirson) Family
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#shn-4:Rabbi Sholem Schneersohn the fifth Lubavitcher Rebbe
Daniel Levitan, Rabbi Yossi Baitelman ( Ancestry from Dokshitz) and
Boris (Benzion) Yakobinetz, Yakhna Moiseevna Schneerson, Leyba Schneerson, Tzetziliya (Tzilya) Mikhaylovna Schneerson, R' Mikhel Shmuel Schneerson, of Griva
Yakhna Moiseevna Schneerson, Mania Meierovna Schneerson, Movsha Israel Meierovich Schneerson, Dveira Meierovna Davidson, Sara Meierovna Schneerson
Yakhna Moiseevna Schneerson, R' Mikhel Shmuel Schneerson, of Griva, Musya Kopelevna Davidova, Kopel Shlomovich Zhuk-Kogan, Khana Freida Benzianovna Mikhel, Olga Tzalkovna (Savelievna) Kurgatnikova, Osher Alexandrovich Kurgatnikov, Rosya (Rosa) Tzalkovna (Savelievna) Zhuk-Kogan, Abram Birkengeim, Khaya Birkengeim, Tzetziliya (Tzilya) Mikhaylovna Schneerson, Boris Osherovich Kurgatnikov, Sophia Tulbowitsch, Boris (Benzion) Yakobinetz
Yakhna Moiseevna Schneerson (Berlin)
Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (Schneerson), famed as the "Tzemach Tzedek" after his magnum opus on Talmudic law, was born on the eve of Rosh Hashana 5549 (1789), to Rabbi Shalom Schachne and Devora Leah. His maternal grandfather was Rabbi Schneur Zalman (Baruchovitch) of Liadi-Lyozna, founder of Chabad Chassidus, and popularly known as the "Alter Rebbe" (Old Rabbi), or simply as the "Rav." Two great works of Rabbi Schneur Zalman are Tanya and Shulchan Aruch, on Chassidus and Torah law respectively. Rabbi Menachem Mendel's father-in-law was his uncle Rabbi Dov-Ber Schneuri, the "Mitteler Rebbe," whom he succeeded as head of the Chabad Chassidim on Kislev 10, 5588 (1827 ), until his passing on Nissan 13, 5626 (1866) .
When Rabbi Menachem Mendel was fifteen, Rabbi Schneur Zalman instructed him to work with his uncle, Rabbi Moshe, in communal affairs. This was in addition to his responsibility to study all inquiries on Torah matters, and after discussion of the law with Rabbi Yehuda Leib of Yanovitch (Rabbi Schneur Zalman's brother and author of Sheris Yehuda), to submit responsa in outline to Rabbi Schneur Zalman.
After residing briefly in Haditch where Rabbi Schneur Zalman had been interred in 1813, Rabbi Menachem. Mendel settled in Lubavitch, Mogilev province, in 1814, with his father-in-law. He stipulated that no communal problems intrude on his studies. His assiduity in study was exceptional, 1 and he continued to examine all Torah inquiries received by Rabbi Dov-Ber. When Rabbi Dov-Ber approved, he would answer the letters. This regime lasted about twelve years.
1 "I generally studied eighteen hours daily, including five hours in writing; he wrote to his son.
In a supplement to Torah Or (N. Y. 1954, p. 285), Rabbi Joseph I. Schneersohn writes:
In later years Rabbi Menachem Mendel attributed his success at the Rabbinical Commission of 1843 to three merits. One was the 32,000 hours he spent during thirty years in profound study of Rabbi Schneur Zalman's works, and the commentaries he wrote then twenty hours every week.
Rabbi Dov-Ber was accused1 in 1826 of subversive activities, and ordered to appear in Vitebsk. At this point Rabbi Menachem Mendel entered public life. His first undertaking was the organization of a committee, composed of people from various circles, to defend Rabbi Dov-Ber. He also laid t efforts on establishing farm colonies in Vitebsk and Minsk provinces; Mogilev boasted a great many colonies by that time.
1 While fleeing Napoleon's armies Rabbi Schneur Zalman died. All the family's possessions in Liadi were destroyed. Rabbi Dov-Ber was then in Kremenchug in Little Russia, and from there he went to settle in Lubavitch in White Russia. Chassidim en route provided him with means to establish himself in his new home. Upon his arrival however, he decided to distribute the funds to the needy, and wrote to a relative about forming a committee of three to supervise the allocation. In this letter he referred to a "considerable" sum.
Years later this letter came into the hands of the recipient's heir, as unscrupulous and vengeful enemy of the Rabbi. He harbored air implacable hatred of the Rabbi for some personal family "slight." He attempted to use this letter to blackmail the Rabbi, but the Rabbi refused to be intimidated by a perfectly innocent letter.
With some judicious doctoring, the figures in the letter, "three or four thousand rubles" became "one hundred and three or four thousand." This was indeed a "considerable" sum. What could be its purpose? And how did he gather such a sum on so short a journey? Simple. He was plotting a revolution! The money was destined for the Turks, who then ruled the Holy Land. The regular remittances to needy scholars there lent an air of credibility to the charges.
Other weird accusations were made concerning the dimensions of the Rabbis synagogue being similar to those of the Jerusalem Temple, and of course that meant that he intended to be King of Israel or something. The similarity to the charges leveled against Rabbi Schneur Zalman ( fn. 37) in 1798 is striking.
In the fall of 1826 the Rabbi was instructed to appear in Vitebsk, the provincial capital. This was done in a most respectful manner, through high-ranking officers and arrangements to suit the Rabbi. Hundreds accompanied him from Lubavitch, and at every village the elders met him with the traditional bread and salt. The honor and reverence accorded him by Jew and Gentile deeply impressed the officials.
Governor-General Chavanski, a harsh man who entertained little affection for the Rabbi, conducted the investigation. However, Dr. Heibenthal, Jan Lubomirski, and others interceded on his behalf. He was treated with dignity and later permitted to worship publicly, lecture on Chassidus, etc. He was officially informed that he was completely exonerated of all suspicion and released on Kislev 10, a festival among Chassidim ever since.
For details of the dramatic trip and investigation, see Hatomim II, Warsaw, 1935, p. 74 ff.
The Kherson farmers1 had demonstrated the feasibility of Jews' settling on farms. They prospered there, and many regularly gave tithes to charity, a portion to be distributed at the discretion of Rabbi Dov-Ber. The settlers in Vitebsk, Minsk, and Mogilev received aid from the reconstruction fund established by Rabbi Dov-Ber, and a large proportion of the loans had been repaid into the agriculture fund.
1 Chabad Rabbis were always concerned about the material welfare of Jews, not only about their spiritual condition. In order to alleviate their economic distress he encouraged farming, a previously unfamiliar occupation. To this end he persuaded the Government to allot land in Kherson province for Jewish settlers. He arranged for their settling, supplied them with the necessities, and spent a full summer with them at the time. ( Kuntres Umayon, New York, 1943, p. 14.)
Rabbi Dov-Ber's last three years, 1825-1827, were hard. Because of the depression the contributions for the families in the Holy Land1 were only one third of the required sum, and the debts were overwhelming. Rabbi Dov-Ber loaned money from the agriculture fund to complement the contributions.
1 About the year 1777, a group of Chassidim established a colony in the Holy Land under the leadership of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Vitebsker (Horodoker) -- for whom the Tzemach Tzedek was named -- and elder confrere of Rabbi Schneur Zalman.
Rabbi Menachem Mendel appointed a council of five senior Chassidim who would make the necessary decisions in communal problems. They were Rabbis Moshe Meisels1 of Vilna, Baruch Mordecai Eitinga2 of Bobroisk, Isaac 3 of Gomel, Hillel4 of Paritch, and Peretz5 of Beshenkovitch. Rabbi Hillel began making regular visits to the Kherson settlements in 1828, and would spend the three summer months there annually. Besides his influence on the settlers in regard to Torah and piety in the Chassidic tradition, he had a salutary erect on their personal conduct and brotherly relations with each other.
for the rest go to ; http://www.jewish-history.com/Chabad/haskalah1.html
The Chabad Heritage Series
Rabbi Shalom Dov Baer Schneerson
Links in the Chassidic Legacy: Letter From The Tzemach Tzedek With Remarks By The Previous Rebbe, And Excerpts From His Diary http://www.sichosinenglish.org/books/links-in-the-chassidic-legacy/15.htm
Name Residence Arrived Age
The earliest Sneirsons have been traced to various shtetls in Lithuania and Latvia in the mid 1800's, including the following in Lithuania: Kupishok (Kupiskis), Salat (Salociai, Salat, Salatas, or Salaty), and Bauska, Latvia. To the right is a photograph of the Kupishok Marketplace, taken in 1912. ORIGINS OF THE NAMEThe Sneirson name has been spelled in many ways. In Lithuania, the name has been listed in a document as "Snejersonas." On arrival in the U.S., the first Sneirsons spelled the last name as "Sneierson," which later evolved into two branches of the family: the SNEIRSONS and the SNIERSONS. Other possible variations of the spelling might include the following: Sneirson Snierson Sneierson Schneerson Shneerson Schneierson Shneierson Shneourson Schneurson Schneourson Schneyerson Shneyerson Shneorson Shneiorson Shnieorson Schneorson Sznierson Schneourson Snejerson Shneursohn Snerson Snearson Sznejerson Szneerson Shneurson Schneurson Shneurson Schneursohn From: Encyclopedia Judaica, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem:
SCHNEURSOHN (SCHNEERSON, SHNEURSON)
This is a patronymic of the Hebrew name "Schneur." (Some of the Schneersohns claim descent from the family of Hasidic leaders who were descendants of the Zaddik, Shneur Zalman of Lyady, the founder of Habad Hasidism, popularly known as Lubavich).
Jews used patronyms as a means of personal identification long before its comparatively recent use in the formation of hereditary surnames. The Talmud itself is a rich source for patrynomics, illustrating the fact that these were so common that it was necessary to distinguish names from one other by using relationships other than the straightforward "son of" such as "son-in-law," "brother-in-law," etc.
Most Jewish patronymics which have survived into modern Sephardi and Oriental Jews borrowed extensively from their Arab neighbours, while Ahkenazi Jews often translated Hebrew names into Yiddish and the vernacular, or used vernacular suffixes on the Hebrew name to indicate the patronymic.
One of the peculiarities of European Jewish onomastics is the unusually high proportion of metronymic surnames, which can be explained by the important place accorded to the mother in Jewish law. The smaller proportion of surnames based on the wife's name is also fairly unique to the Jewish people.
The most common signs indicating patrynomics are the prefixes "Ben" and "Bar" (Hebrew), "Ibn" (Arabic), and "Ou" (Berber), the suffixes "sohn" (German) or "s, es, is, ic, son, zon, el, and kind/kin/lin" (Yiddish, the latter mainly found in metronymics). Many Eastern European Jewish patronymics can be identified by the suffixes "ovitch, ov, off, eff, in , ko, ka. cik, and kin."
From: Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora:
Many Jewish family names are deeply embedded in legend and history.
Schneur is a German variant of the Hebrew Shneo(u)r, and Schneurso(h)n is the German/Yiddish equivalent of Ben Sheneor.
Shnei is the Hebrew for two, and or means light. The meaning of Shneo(u)r and similar names is two lights or two lamps.
Light is the primal element of creation in all ancient cosmologies. In the Bible, it is the first creation of G-d (Gen.1.2-3). In Rabbinical literature, it also symbolizes the Torah, the soul and wisdom.
One story explains Shneo(u)r as the name give to a baby orphaned of both parents in the hope that their two souls, or two lights, would watch over it. Another relates that when a husband and wife wanted to name their new son after their father, they called him Sheneor, that is two lights, because both grandfathers had borne names meaning light: one had been Meir and the other Uri.
Ben Sheneor, meaning the son of two lights, is documented as a family name with the 12th/13th-century Rabbi and Tosafist, Samuel Ben Sheneor of Evreux, France. Seneor in 15th-century Spain, and Sheneor in 15th-century Holland. Schneur is recorded in 1545, Schneor in 1635, Schnepf in 1690, and Schneer in 1692. Schnerph is found in 1700, Schneyer in 1757, and Schnerb and Schnerf in 1784. ORIGINS IN AMERICAThe Sneierson Immigrants
1. George Sneierson
George Sneierson was born on July 10th, 1870 in Riga, Latvia, to Hiram and Mary Sneierson. He emigrated to Boston, Massachusetts on or about May 5, 1888, and settled in Manchester in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire. He petitioned for naturalization in May of 1894. Leon Saidel and Kosriel Nunas of Manchester were his witnesses.
to read the rest go to; http://home.attbi.com/~sneirson/origins.html
The Contemporary Jewish Documentation
Centre ("CJDC") project was the dream of Itzhak Shneorson, a
Parisian blessed with a sense for history, who early in the Second World
War began documenting the Nazi horrors. On returning to Paris after the
war, he decided to erect a monument in memory of the murdered Jews, turning
to Jewish Auschwitz survivor, architect Alexander Frasiz. He proposed
a building to house Shneorson's documentation, including the Gestapo archive
seized in Paris after falling from a fleeing Nazi truck.
Minsk Vedomosti notices concerning the Shneersons of Lubavitch
Translation of two legal notices from the 2 April 1877 Minsk Vedomosti,
Page 154 in the bound volume, dealing with the finances of the
Shneerson family of Lubavitch:
1. Levik Boruch Shneerson
The Orsha District Police Board announces that, in accord with a decree
issued 17 January 1877 under Section 2089 Volume X Chapter II, for
nonpayment by Levik Boruch Shneerson, an Orsha residents who belongs
to the Lubavitch Hebrew community, of a money loan issued 27 October
1859, with principal of 432 rubles 44.5 kopecks, interest of 180 rubles
18.75 kopecks, fines of 62 rubles 12.5 kopecks, capital under
(razsrochke??) from 1876 to 1879 96 rubles 9.75 kopecks, for a total of 818
rubles 90.25 kopecks, a public sale will be held of real estate belonging to
Shneerson, including a one-story wooden dwelling house with two rooms
lying in the Orsha District, fourth ward, in the town of Lubavitch, on landing
belonging to the sovereign town of Lubavitch, to the honorable
descendants of the citizen Ivan Firsan, who (deeded?) to the house and
courtyard 320 square 3.5-foot units of length, said property appraised at
462 rubles, (by law purchased at a price below appraisal/s'
predostavleniem prava pokupshcikam predlagat tzenu nizhe otzenki). The
sale will be held in the Orsha District Police Board offices 2 June 1877 in a
three-day special re-auction. Those who wish to buy the
aforesaid property can see documents on the terms of this sale at the
Police Board offices.
2. Shneer Nokhimov Shneerson
The Mogilev Gubernya Board announces that, because Orsha resident
Shneer Nokhimov Shneerson failed to pay a fire loan made by this
government board that was backed by a lien on his house, there will be a
sale of three-room wooden house with extensions and sheds
located in the Orsha District, in the town of Lubavitch, on
(vladelcheskoi owned?) land appraised at 1297 rubles. The sale will be
held 3 June 1877, with a statutory re-auction, under the appraisal.
Those who wish may see documents concerning the execution of this
notice and the terms of the sale, at 6 Stole 2 Gubernya Board branch, on
all government days.